Open Access Short Communication

Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Protein Concentration and Profile of the Blowfly Maggot (Lucilia robineau) Excretion/Saliva Extract

I. C. J. Omalu, E. C. Egwim, K. Abdulraman, S. Ibrahim, C. Hassan, S. S. Eke, E. D. Ubanwa, A. Aliyu, A. A. Boyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21475

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging activity, Protein concentration and profile of Blowfly maggot (Lucilia robineau) excretion/secretion (ES).

Place and Duration of Study: Maggot samples were collected from first generation of blowflies reared between June 2014 and July 2015.

Introduction: Maggots of the blowfly have been successfully used as a debridement agent for chronic and infected wounds through history.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity, protein concentration and profiles of the maggot ES of Lucilia robineau was determined using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and Bradford methods

Results: Results showed that maggot ES expressed a free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 152.66 µg/ml compared with L-ascorbic acid with IC50 of 108.99 µg/ml as a positive control while total protein concentration was 430.51 mg/ml. Protease and specific activities are 1.5x10-2 mg/ml and 28,700.67 IU while the protein fractions are Albumins 36.96%, Alpha Globulins 21.32%, Beta Globulins 31.69% and Gamma Globulins 10.02%.                      

Conclusion: Therefore, this study revealed that the proteomic content of maggot ES of Lucilia robineau has promising natural antioxidants. This is the first study on antioxidant properties, protein concentration and profile of Blowfly maggot (Lucilia robineau).

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of the Fruit and Stem Bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub (Mimosaceae)

O. E. Famobuwa, L. Lajide, B. J. Owolabi, I. B. Osho, U. E. Amuho

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21462

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera stem bark and fruit. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) assay were carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The antioxidant activity of the extracts which was determined by DPPH increases with a corresponding increase in concentration. The percentage DPPH radical inhibition ability of the stem bark ranged from 28.74% to 85.26% while that of fruit ranged from -10.56% to 66.01%. The percentage antioxidant activity of the stem bark extract is almost at par with that of ascorbic acid while that of fruit extract is about 75%. But at 25 mg/ml, the fruit extract showed a pro-oxidant activity. The reductive ability of the stem bark extract ranged from 0.393 to 1.641 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per mL of extract (about two-fifth of the reference drug) while that of fruit extract ranged from 0.342 to 1.325 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/mL of extract (one-third that of reference drug). The efficacy of the fruit and stem bark extracts of T. tetraptera in some of its bioactivities may be attributed to its favourable antioxidant potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heat Stable Inhibitors of Protein Cross-linking from Sri Lankan Medicinal Plants

H. K. I. Perera, W. K. V. K. Premadasa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21839

Aims: Glycation induced protein cross-linking is recognized as the most damaging element of advanced glycation end product formation and is a key player of diabetic complications. Objectives of the present study were to assess the heat stability of potential glycation inhibitors of seven medicinal plants and to investigate whether the cross-linking is inhibited when the extracts are added after the commencement of glycation.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, from May 2013 to March 2014.

Methodology: Plant parts with promising in vitro cross-link inhibitory potential were analyzed. Lysozyme and fructose system was used as the glycation model. Effect of heated (at 95ºC for 1 hour) and non heated samples on fructosamine formation and glycation induced protein cross-linking was compared using nitroblue tetrazolium method and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis respectively. Effect of the addition of non heated samples on day 0, 1 and 2 on cross-linking was also compared.

Results: Both heated and non heated extracts of Coriandrum sativum seed, Phyllanthus debilis whole plant, Phyllanthus emblica fruit, Syzygium aromaticum flower and Syzygium cumini leaf showed reduction in the formation of fructosamine and lysozyme cross-links almost to the same extent. There was a reduction in the inhibitory effects of the heated samples of Ficus racemosa stem bark and Pterocarpus marsupium latex. All seven samples prevented further increase in cross-linking when added on day 1 of the incubation, but not when added on day 2 except for S. cumini.

Conclusion: C. sativum, P. debilis, P. emblica, S. aromaticum and S. cumini extracts possess thermo stable compounds that inhibit fructosamine and glycation induced protein cross-linking. Plants used are likely to have inhibitory effects on early or middle stages of glycation and did not demonstrate the ability of breaking cross-links.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Hepatic Effects of Hippocratea africana Root Bark Extract on Female and Male Albino Wistar Rats

Jessie Idongesit Ndem, Efosa Godwin Ewere

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22379

Aim: To compare the effects of Hippocretea africana root bark extract on liver function biomarkers of female and male albino Wistar rats.

Study Design: 48 albino Wistar rats weighing 163-227 gms consisting 24 females and 24 males were randomly distributed into 4 groups of six animals each on sex basis. Group I served as normal control and were given 1 ml of distilled water. Groups II, III and IV were administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively of the extract by oral intubation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo. The duration of the study was 14 days.

Methodology: Liver function biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) and Oxidative Stress markers (catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and MDA concentrations were assayed using standard procedures. Histopathological examinations of liver organs were also carried out using standard methods.

Results: Generally, there were increases in ALT and AST activities for both female and male groups II and III extract treated rats while test group IV recorded decreased activities for the female compared with the control. AST and ALP activities were significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) higher in male rats with exception of AST for group IV and GGT for groups II and III compared with the control. Treatments with extract significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) increased the activities of SOD and CAT and also significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) increased MDA concentrations in female and male rats.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Hippocratea africana root bark extract has a mild toxic effect on liver tissues as seen from the concentrations of liver function enzymes, and the histopathological examination. The increased activities of SOD and CAT and MDA concentrations may probably be a way of first line defence. Thus, long-term administration of the herb may not be advised in the males even with its good antiplasmodial property.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiplasmodial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Newbouldia laevis Used in Treating Malaria-associated Symptoms

Enemakwu Thomas Andrew, M. M. Adeyemi, L. Salihu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21453

This study investigated the In vitro antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical constituents of the leaves from Newbouldia laevis used in the local treatment of malaria. The crude ethanol extract from the medicinal plant (NL-01) was fractionated into ethyl acetate (NL-01-01), chloroform (NL-01-02) and n-hexane (NL-01-03) fractions. NL-01-03 has the highest weight of 1.7 g followed by NL-01-01 (0.9 g). SL-01-02 has the least weight of 0.7 g. In vitro antiplasmodial assays and phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane fractions from the plant were further carried out. Alkaloids, saponins tannins, flavonoids, steroids and glycosides were detected in the extracts of the plant. Plant’s leaves extracts and fractions were found to be active against Plasmodium falciparum with percentage elimination range of 43.18 to 79.54%. The results showed that percentage elimination increases as the concentrations of the extract and fractions increase. At 0.5 mg/cm3, SL-01-01 has the highest activity of 54.54% while SL-01-02 has the least percentage elimination of 43.18%. At concentration of 5.0mg/cm3, NL-01 has the highest activity of 79.54% while NL-01-02 has the least activity of 72.72%. The analysis of the results of the extract and that of the standard (positive control) using Mann-Whitny U test indicate that there is no significant difference between them at 95% confidence interval. Spearman rank correlation analysis of the plant samples with the positive control samples showed that there is correlation and the degree of relationship between the antiplasmodial activities of the plant samples and positive control samples is positively perfect (ˠs = 1).

TLC screening of the ethyl acetate fraction using ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture in the ratio 1:4 revealed four spots on the plate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosimilar mAb in-process Sample Higher Order Structure Analysis with Protein Conformational Array ELISA

Michael Davies, Gan Wang, Jian Gong, Guofeng Fu, Xing Wang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21724

Biologics higher order structure (HOS) plays an important role in the molecule’s biological function and is closely related to its immunogenicity property. A novel technology to study changes in HOS is the Protein Conformational Array (PCA) ELISA which uses a bank of 34 antibodies to measure epitope distribution on the surface of biologics such as mAbs. The objective of this study is to use Protein Conformational Array technology to analyze mAb HOS status during bioprocess development. Under carefully controlled assay conditions, the mAb epitope distribution can be thought of as a ‘fingerprint’ of the biologics being studied and many physiochemical changes would correlate with changes in HOS. MAbs with additional epitope exposure compared to the reference standard or innovator mAb can be considered as conformational impurities. In this study we used the PCA ELISA to follow this epitope ‘fingerprint’ to study the HOS of two biosimilar mAbs under development; a large number of samples from both upstream and downstream of the process were analyzed. In these two particular cases, an increase in epitope exposure was observed from the two biosimilar mAb cell culture samples in the later stage of the upstream process. During the downstream process, the PCA ELISA indicated that almost all of the mAb conformational impurities were removed, producing a biosimilar candidate with high HOS similarity to the reference standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Mimusops elengi L.

Hina Zahid, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Madiha Khan, Shaukat Khalid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/18865

Aim: M. elengi L. (Sapotaceae) has been used for rheumatism and pain. However the floral part of this plant is not scientifically explored yet for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The present study is an endeavor to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of flower and leaves (MFE and MLE) of Mimusops elengi.

Study Design: Assessment of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

Methodology: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in albino species of rats by using carrageenan induced paw edema, where as in vitro antioxidant activity was also performed by DPPH radical and nitric oxide scavenging method.

Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of M. elengi (MFE, MLE) against carrageenan induced paw edema in albino rats at a dose of (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) showed that the extracts have significant (P <0.01; P< 0.001) effect on inflammation and markedly reduced the swelling. At a concentration of 20 μg/mL, 40 μg/mL, 60 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL (MFE, MLE) extracts, scavenged of DPPH radical. While in nitric oxide scavenging assay, various concentrations of the extracts (10, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/mL) of M. elengi showed percentage inhibition in a dose dependent manner. These activities showed by the extracts of M. elengi due to the frequent occurrence of rich phenolic compounds such as, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, terpenoids and saponins.

Conclusion: In the light of research it seems close correlation between the powerful antioxidant and significant anti-inflammatory activities of the MFE and MLE.