Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Critical Appraisal of Studies on the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of HyFlex EDM Nickel-titanium Instrument

Amal B. Saeed, Rahaf A. Alshehri, Arwa W. Almaassri, Alaa M. Ahmed, Hadeel A. Nathar, Mada A. Barnawi, Jehan A. Zakzouk, Aman M. Alrohaibani, Sarah A. Almajaishi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 60, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i607272

Aims: To summarize the currently available evidence to point out the different outcomes of static versus dynamic tests and to assess whether cyclic fatigue tests provide useful data and information for clinical practice.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Place and Duration of Study: From May 2015 to July 2021, a total of 21 studies on HyFlex EDM cyclic fatigue have been published in the Journal of Endodontics and the International Endodontic Jour- nal and Odontology, and the Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice and Journal of Den- tal Sciences restorative dentistry and endodontic and MDPI.

Methodology: Different studies comparing between Hyflex EDM and other rotary files as in: wave one gold, reciproc blue.

Results: REC showed that HYFLEX EDM has the highest cyclic fa- tigue resistance and conforming that sterilization has no influence in cyclic fatigue resistance.

Conclusion: Non-invasive independent predictors for screening esophageal varices may decrease medical as well as financial burden, hence improving the management of cirrhotic patients. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Different Brands of Nitroglycerine Controlled Release Tablets Available in Indian Market

Rajesh Agrawal, Ganesh Prasad Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 60, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i607269

The nitroglycerine oral solid preparations are available in the international and Indian market as – Sublingual tablets and Controlled Release tablets since a very long time. However, the quality issues (like few of the mentioned below) are consistently there. Due to this poor stability issues, even the Pharmacopoeial monographs insists on wider Dosage content uniformity limits (75 – 135% of label claim) and relaxed assay limits (90 – 115% of label claim). In the present study a comparison for the most critical quality parameters such as, Dissolution and Related substance among the In-House developed product and different brands of 2.6 mg Nitroglycerin Controlled Release tablet available in Market was carried out. It was observed that Impurity 1 MNG was not observed in any of the market product while Impurity 2 MNG was observed initially in two branded products but on stability this impurity observed in all branded products except In-house developed product. Initially, drug dissolution result of In-house developed product was comparable with the all branded product. On stability, Drug release profile of all branded product varies to a significant level from its initial value while the drug release profile of the In-house developed product remain unchanged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis, Treatment & Rehabilitation of Rotator Cuff Acute & Chronic Injury in Throwing Sports Athletes by Isometric, Isotonic and Theraband Exercises

Sajjad Ali Gill, Ayesha Saddiqa, Uzair Abdullah, Amir Nawaz, Fehmida Ayoob, Hira Shahid, Atia Altaf, Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Noor Ul Ain Butt, Ayesha Sajjad, Zain Arshad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 60, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i607270

The purpose of this experimental study is to diagnosis and rehabilitate the rotator cuff muscles (RC) in domestic, Intervarsity & National athletes of various throwing sports selected from five major cities of Punjab (Lahore, Multan, Gujranwala, Faisalabad & Sialkot) having confirmed Acute and Chronic injury) with confirmed injury along with some suggested treatments for fasten recovery. The subjects were selected from all the cities having same number of sample size (N=25). A total of N=125 subjects were selected and passed through different test to identify or get the baseline data information. A survey questionnaire was also spread among athletes to gather the feedback of the athletes to give them a rehab plan and utilized Rest, Ice, Compression & Elevation (R.I.C.E) principle (if required). A control injured group (N=25) were also selected for further comparison. The rehabilitation plan (Isometric, isotonic and theraband exercises) was executed for 8 months and statistical analysis performed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS-26) along with paired sample t-test utilized to analyze the results. The reliability calculated through Cronbach Alpha and its value was 0.82. The statistical results showed significant values and showed optimistic response of rehabilitation through Isometric, isotonic and theraband exercises. The post test assessment through tests also indicated satisfactory results. The research concluded that rehabilitation through Isometric, isotonic and theraband exercises produces positive results, as conditioning rehab plan was effective and satisfactory and all the athletes returned to their sport after the completion of the rehabilitation and recovery program. The study also checked the recurrence by followed the subjects for 2 months and resulted that no one is injured during this period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computer-Assisted Design of Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives Inhibitors of M1 Metallo Aminopeptidase of Plasmodium falciparum with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profile

Niaré Adama, Hermann N’Guessan, Brice Dali, Eugene Megnassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 60, Page 21-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i607271

We virtually design here new subnanomolar range antimalarial, inhibitors of plasmodium falciparum M1 Aminopeptidase (PfA-M1), by means of structure-based molecular design. We developed the complexation QSAR models from Hydroxamic Acid derivatives (AHO). A linear correlation was established between the computed Gibbs free energies of binding (GFE: ∆∆Gcom) and observed enzyme inhibition constants (Kiexp) for each training set pKiexp = −0.063×∆∆Gcom+ 8.003, R2 = 0.92. The predictive power of the QSAR model was validated with 3D-QSAR pharmacophore generation (PH4): pKiexp = 1.0289×pKipred − 0.155, R2 = 0.90. We then conducted a study on catalytic residues to exploit the different interactions (enzyme: inhibitor). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VCL) of more than 44 thousands AHOs. The PH4 screening retained 51 new and potent AHOs with predicted inhibitory potencies pKipre up to 13 times lower than that of AHO1 (pKiexp = 700 nM). Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VCL resulted in the proposed novel potent antimalarial agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association between Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Demographic and Clinical Data in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients in Jeddah

Rania Magadmi, Leyan Bakedo, Deema Abid, Roaya Yaqoub, Eman Darwish, Afrah Khawjah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 60, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i607273

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major chronic systemic health concern that could develop macro- and microvascular complications. One of the commonest microvascular complications is diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) which is a type of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled hyperglycemia of diabetic patients. DPN is one of the most common causes of reduction in life quality and disability in DM patients, as well as; it overload the national health care system. Finding a cost-effective, easy prognostic marker to early detect DPN could be an important step in prevention DM complications. Our research aimed to assess the association between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and demographic and clinical data in diabetic neuropathy patients with average age of 60 years.

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted on 133 patients by reviewing the data records over the period of 10 years from January 2012 to July 2022. The study was done at king Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, in the western region of KSA amongst diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients who are using either oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin with regular follow ups. 

Results: The study included a total of 133 patients with most of them being male i.e., 81 (61%). The mean age of the patients was 60(SD13.5) years. Approximately two-third of the patients 86(64.7%) had diabetes for more than 10 years. There was no significant association identified for gender, age group, nationality, and medication (p >0.05) with HbA1c or NLR. Moreover, there was no significant association between NLR and HbA1c categories.

Conclusion: In conclusion our study showed non-significant relationship between NLR and DPN among elderly diabetic patient at King Abdu al-aziz university hospital (KAUH).