Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Choerospondias axillaris in Rats

Jeevan Khadka, Kusu Susan Cyriac, Ali Salman Al-Shami, Zohreh Elyasi, Blessy Elizabeth Babukutty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 51B, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i51B7204

Background: Choerospondias axillaris CA, known as lapsi, is a plant with constituents having therapeutic properties. All plant parts including stem, bark, root, leaves, and fruit have medicinal virtues and have had a role in Ethno-medicine since ancient times.

Objective:  The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of dried powder of Choerospondias axillaris fruits in Wistar albino rats.

Methods: The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract of the fruit of Choerospondias axillaris (CA) was tested in a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rat model. Here, chronic hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a high-fat diet for 21 days to rats. During the experiment, the rat’s body weight was monitored. At the end of the study, animals among whole groups have been sacrificed and biochemical parameters such as; serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C), and increase of serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were analysed.

Results: The observed extract of Choerospondias axillaris was proven to be safe in the toxicity findings.  Treatment with methanolic extract of CA (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) significantly reduced the hyperlipidemia i.e., the decline in levels of serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C), and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) when compared to vehicle control and standard drug Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg). The result indicates that methanolic extract of the whole plant of Choerospondias axillaris possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity.

Conclusion: After all the investigation it was found that oral administration of Choerospondias axillaris fruit extract at a low dose of 300mg/kg and a high dose of 600mg/kg against the high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and it was found that a high dose was more effective as compared to low dose. The drug was able to suppress the raised parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Echocardiographic Parameters and Functional Class in Patients of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

Syed Dilbahar Ali Shah, Arshad Ali Shah, Muhammad Sami Khan, Faisal Ahmed, Hana Shamim, Syed Arif Ali, Muhammad Nawaz Lashari, Dileep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 51B, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i51B7206


Background: This study sought to determine, in retrospect, the effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on the echocardiographic and functional class of ambulatory HFrEF patients taking conventional heart failure therapy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational single-center cohort of ninety HFrEF patients with NYHA Class II-III attending as an outpatient at a tertiary cardiac care facility between November 2018 and January 2020. Standardized two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and functional class evaluation were conducted at baseline and after 03-month of SV treatment.

Results: At 03-month follow-up evaluation, SV treatment was found to contribute substantially in reversing the cardiac remodeling of HFrEF patients as evidenced by improvement in LVEF (28.51±5.06 to 36.01±10.63; p < 0.001), LVEDD (57.29±7.99 to 53.14±8.22; p <0.001), and LVESD (46.07±9.49 to 43.20±9.22; p <0.001). Additionally, an improvement in sPAP (34.13±9.49 to 32.46±8.14; p <0.001) was observed along with a significant NYHA functional class recovery (2.76 to 1.89, p < 0.001). Upon gender-based stratification, the data suggested no gender-based differences in reverse remodeling effects of SV; though statistically insignificant, LA (38.51±8.23 to 37.3±5.92 mm) and RV (27.10±5.74 to 26.42±2.81 mm) diameters were observed to reduce only in men.

Conclusion: Our study maintained that earlier commencement of SV in parallel with conventional heart failure therapy results in a significant amount of improvement in LVEF, LVEDD, LVESD, and sPAP in HFrEF patients irrespective of their gender. Simultaneously, SV alleviates the heart failure-related morbidity through rapid functional status (NYHA Class) recovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health-Related Quality of Life Assessment in Post-Covid Patients: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey

Leena Muppa, S. Manikandan, L. Nissi, A. Tamil Arasi, J. Yamini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 51B, Page 20-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i51B7207


  • To compare the impact of covid-19 infection and its associated factors among various domains of quality of life (general health (GH), physical health (PH), mental health, and pain).
  • To determine the variation and it’s contributing factors to the quality of life (QoL).
  • To identify the most common persisting symptoms after covid-19 infection.

Study Design: Cross-sectional community based online survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Community-based online survey done for a period of 6 months (March 2021- September 2021) among patients who recovered from covid-19.

Methodology: A validated self-made questionnaire with informed consent was used to gather information on the patient’s demographics (age, gender, educational qualification, occupation, marital status, and risk factors) covid-19 details (vaccination, severity, and hospitalization details), persisting symptoms, andHealth Related Quality of Life (HRQoL).

The HRQoL questions with scored options were framed under four domains general health, physical health, mental health, and pain. A convenient sample of 120 participants was included in our study.

Results: The median and inter-quartile ranges were used to describe the HRQoL score. For normal data, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was used to investigate the relationship between the dependent and independent variables.MLR results demonstrated that risk factors, severity, and length of hospital stay were negatively associated with QoL.

For non-normal data, the Kruskal Wallis test (KWT) and Mann Whitney U (MWU) test were used to compare the effect of covid-19 and its associated factors among various domains of HRQoL. KWT and MWT showed that the ability to perform physical activity was highly impaired in most post-covid patients. Cough, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache were the significant persisting symptoms of covid-19, reported by our participants. IBM SPSS software version 28.0 was used for statistical analysis.

Conclusion: We conclude that health care intervention is needed to manage persisting symptoms and to improve HRQoL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Motivation and Awareness of Female Physiotherapists in Saudi Arabia toward Women Health Physiotherapy

Shurouq Mohammed Al-Khalifa, Azizah Saad Alotaibi, Shadin Ali Alamrah, Ahmad Al-Badr, Bashaer Adel Fallatah, Rabya Adel Mahroos, Maram Mohammed Alali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 51B, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i51B7208

Background: Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are a group of common conditions that create a great distress to the lives of many female patients. The role of women health physiotherapy (WHPT) in managing PFDs is crucial. Scarce data in the literature describe the awareness, attitude, and practice of WHPT among female physiotherapists and to the best of our knowledge, none are reported in Saudi Arabia. This paper hypothesizes that female physiotherapists in Saudi Arabia are less motivated to practice WHPT and that being less motivated have led to acquiring a lower level of awareness to the specialty. Additionally, it aims to explore the beliefs of female physiotherapists toward WHPT.

Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed among female physiotherapists working in Saudi Arabia. Participants were asked to identify other colleagues to include in the sample. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested using a pilot study.

Results: The majority of respondents [75.9%] are specialists and 69.2% reported years of experience ranging from 1 to 5. Around 46.9% of respondents were motivated to practice WHPT and 82.1% agreed that physiotherapy is important in treating PFDs. Additionally, Respondents who were motivated to practice WHPT displayed a significantly higher level of awareness to the specialty and understood the importance of pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) as an intervention for PFDs.

Conclusions: There is adequate level of awareness of female physiotherapists in Saudi Arabia to WHPT and a great motivation to practice the specialty. The study highlighted the need to organize various educational programs and workshops that focus on WHPT and PFR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Naproxen and Esomeprazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Syeda Kulsum, Ayesha Naz, Abdul Rehman, Abdul Bari, Mohammed Salman, Shayestha Jabeen, Samreen Akhter

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 51B, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i51B7209

Introduction: An accurate, specific and precise reverse phase UV spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Naproxen and Esomeprazole in tablet dosage form. Naproxen and Esomeprazole tablets were used to relieve the spondylitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in adults’ juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children.

Methods: Simple and accurate UV spectroscopic method was developed using Naproxen and Esomeprazole tablet and results were tabulated.

Results and Discussion: The optimum conditions were established for the analysis of the drug. The maximum wavelength of Naproxen (λmax) was found to be 231nm and for Esomeprazole was 301nm respectively. The linearity of the method developed was in the range 10-50 μg/ml for Naproxen and 30-70 μg/ml for Esomeprazole. Calibration curves for Naproxen and Esomeprazole showed a linear relationship among the absorbance and concentration. The line equation observed for Naproxen is Y= 0.0374X + 0.0805 with r2 of 0.9936 and for Esomeprazole drug was 0.0377 X+0.0576 with R2 of 0.9962 . Validation parameters were performed as per ICH guidelines for all validation parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The results of LOD and LOQ were found to be within the range.

Conclusion: The proposed method for Naproxen and Esomeprazole was simple, yet sensitive and precise for repeated analysis of Naproxen and esomeprazole in bulk and tablet formulations.