Open Access Short Research Article

North Cyprus Pharmacist’s Cognition and Practice of Pharmaceutical Care

Abdikarim Mohamed Abdi, Abdullah T. Zarouri, Louai Saloumi, Bilgen Basgut

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39051

The aim of this project is to assess community pharmacists’ attitudes towards their professional practice and to determine their perceived competence in various pharmaceutical activities.

The philosophy of Pharmaceutical care focuses on the responsibility of pharmacist to meet all of the patient’s drug-related needs, and assist the patients in achieving their goal through collaboration with other health professionals.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted prospectively between January and March 2016. It involved community pharmacists working in pharmacies within North Cyprus. There are 190 pharmacies in North Cyprus, 110 questionnaires were administered out of which 80 completed giving a response rate of 78.0% from pharmacists working in community pharmacies.

Results: The result of the current study showed that 97.5% of respondents had knowledge deficit of pharmaceutical care concepts but there is a positive attitude towards the practice of pharmaceutical care.

In comparing pharmacist’s perceptions toward pharmaceutical care, no significant difference was noticed between females and males. While young and new pharmacists significantly (p=0.0001) believe more than older more experienced pharmacists that a pharmacist is only responsible to dispense or counsel the patients on the drug prescribed by him or the physicians.

Conclusion: Pharmacists in North Cyprus had positive pharmaceutical care orientations. This should encourage pharmacist bodies’ educators and regulatory agencies to design initiatives to increase the frequency and quality of practicing pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy.

Open Access Minireview Article

Advances in Research Progress of H. pylori

Fawad Ahmed, Jawad Ahmed, Hammad Ahmed, Syed Saeed Ul Hassan, Javed Iqbal, Ali Sharif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39597

Helicobacter pylori infection is a global public health problem. It can lead to chronic gastritis, stomach & duodenal ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Globally a lot of research has been conducted on H. pylori. This review is focused on its biological characteristics, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activities and Antibacterial Potential of Leaf Extracts of Buchanania axillaris L.

M. Vidya Vani, S. Anjum Mobeen, K. Riazunnisa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39120

Aim: Buchanania axillaris L. (B. axillaris) is a traditional medicinal plant distributed in India and other Asian countries. It is well known as ‘Cuddapah Almond’ and belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae. The aim of the present study was to determine the phytochemicals present, quantify total phenols, total flavonoids, total tannins, in vitro antioxidant activity, catalytic activity and antibacterial potential of aqueous, methanol and n-butanol leaf extracts of B. axillaris.

Materials and Methods: The dried leaf was extracted with different solvents and screened qualitatively and quantitatively for phytochemicals. The antioxidant property was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The catalytic activity was demonstrated by using Methyl orange (MO) as a degrading agent and in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion on selected five human pathogens.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phenols, tannins, steroids, glycosides, proteins and diterpenes. Total phenols, total flavonoids and total tannins were all found to be highest in n-butanolic extracts. DPPH % scavenging activity was observed more in butanolic leaf extract. The result of the antibacterial activity of n-butanolic extracts showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens and showed comparatively better antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts.

Conclusions: The extracts exhibited inhibitory activity against all the pathogens and n-butanolic extracts showed relatively better antioxidant and inhibition activities which may be assigned to the greater bioactive compounds present in it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Efficacy of Different Hydrocortisone-Induced Cataract Models in Developing Chick Embryos

Reşat Duman, Tolga Ertekin, Rahmi Duman, Ayhan Vurmaz, Tülay Köken, Abdülkadir Bilir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39888

Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of different hydrocortisone-induced cataract models in chick embryos.

Material and methods: On the 15th day of the study, hydrocortisone succinate sodium (HC) (0.5 μmol/egg or 0.25 μmol/egg) was administered directly into the air sac (AS) or into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in 4 HC-groups. In two control groups, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was administered in the same manner. On the 17th day of the study (48 hours after the injection), the lenses were removed and classified into five stages according to lens opacification under a stereoscopic microscope. In addition, reduced glutathione levels (GSH) of the lenses were measured by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.

Results: The mean scores of lens opacity and cataract formation in HC-groups were significantly higher than those of control groups (p = 0.00). In addition, the mean reduced glutathione levels were significantly lower in HC-groups compared to control groups (199-245 ps vs. 291-294, p = 0.00). The mean scores for lens opacity, cataract formation, and the mean GSH levels did not significantly differ among 4 HC-groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Both doses of HC (0.25 or 0.50 µmol/egg) and both injection methods (into the AS or CAM) may be used efficiently for cataract formation in chick embryo steroid-induced cataract models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of β-cyclodextrin and Hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin on Aqueous Stability, Solubility and Dissolution of Novel Anti-cancer Drug Rigosertib

Hardikkumar H. Patel, Maitri Trivedi, Manoj Maniar, Chen Ren, Rutesh H. Dave

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39890

Aim: To study Effect of β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin on aqueous stability, solubility and dissolution of novel anti-cancer drug Rigosertib.

Methods: β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin were used to form complex with Rigosertib. The effect of cyclodextrins on drug solubility was studied using phase solubility method. Physico-chemical characterization of drug cyclodextrin complex was performed using differential scanning calorimeter, X-Ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. Dissolution profiles of drug-cyclodextrin complexes showed better drug release compared to untreated drug in pH 1, 2, 4 and 5.5 dissolution medium.   

Results: Rigosertib exhibits poor solubility and chemical instability in acidic solutions. Poor aqueous stability along with limited solubility in acidic conditions can result in limited oral bioavailability of the drug. Both analogues showed positive effect on drug solubility. Hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin performed better compared to β-cyclodextrin to improve drug solubility. In addition, presence of both cyclodextrin analogues improved drug stability in acidic solutions. Physico-chemical characterization of drug cyclodextrin complex was performed using differential scanning calorimeter, X-Ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. Dissolution profiles of drug-cyclodextrin complexes showed better drug release compared to untreated drug in pH 1, 2, 4 and 5.5 dissolution medium.   

Conclusion: Improved drug solubility and chemical stability in acidic conditions can be attributed to complex formation between drug and cyclodextrin.