Open Access Original Research Article

Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–radushkevich Isotherms Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Ampicilin unto Montmorillonite Nanoparticles

Davoud Balarak, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Hossein Azarpira, Ali Joghataei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38056

Present study was accomplished to prospect the viability of using the montmorillonite (Mon) nanoparticles as an adsorbent to remove the Ampicillin under various experimental conditions. The Physico-chemical characteristics of the studied adsorbent were surveyed. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms were applied to portray the data obtained from the adsorption studies. The findings showed that the highest R2 values were related to Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The greatest adsorption capacity (qe) for Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models were recognized to be 134.48 mg/g and 141.22 mg/g, respectively; and the separation factor was calculated to be 0.113 which is indicative of a favorable sorption. Temkin Isotherm model clarified that the heat of sorption process was 34.61 J/mol; and the mean free energy calculated by Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm model was anticipated to be 2.56 Kj/mol which these undoubtedly demonstrate the physisorption process for Ampicillin adsorption experiments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Drying Methods on the Powder and Compaction Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose Derived from Cocos nucifera

Nwachukwu Nkemakolam, Ofoefule Sabinus Ifeanyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37615

Aim: This work aims at investigating the effect of drying methods on the powder and compaction properties of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the matured fruit husk of Cocos nucifera (CN).

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Nigeria, Nsukka from March 2014 to September, 2016.

Methods: Dried CN husk chips were treated with sodium hydroxide to obtain α-cellulose which on further treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid gave MCC. One portion was lyophilized at - 45 ± 2°C for 3 h (coded MCCL-Cocos) while a second portion was fluidized dried at 60 ± 1°C for 2 h (coded MCCF-Cocos). The MCCs were characterized using standard methods. Avicel PH 102 was used as comparing standard.

Results: Physicochemical properties of the derived MCC such as degrees of polymerization DP and crystallinity, molecular weight, morphology and micromeritic properties were determined. The compaction properties were assessed using Kawakita and Heckel equation models. The MCCs had crystallinity index ranging from 81.25 to 82.12%, DP of 222. MCCF-Cocos had better flow indices than MCCL-Cocos. The powders exhibited good densification behaviors based on the Kawakita model assessment. Compacts of MCCL-Cocos were significantly (P = 0.01) harder than MCCF-Cocos compacts. Heckel analysis showed plastic behavior. The compaction properties - hardness and tensile strength of the CN MCCs were lower than that of Avicel PH 102. 

Conclusion: Fluid bed dried MCC had better flowability while lyophilized MCC had superior densification and compaction properties. Thus drying methods had an effect on the powder and compaction behavior of C. nucifera MCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Approach for Studying Antitermite Efficacy of Different Leaf Extracts of Thevetia peruviana from Polluted and Non-polluted Sites

Jasmine Kaur, Gajendra Singh, Neelu Sood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37693

A novel method for evaluating antitermite activity was standardized whereby filter papers treated with 50% methanolic, 90% methanolic and aqueous extracts of Thevetia peruviana leaves from polluted and non-polluted sites against Odontotermes obesus. In vivo investigation was carried out and observations were recorded without disturbing the termitorium. 90% methanolic extract was found to be the most effective control for termites, followed by 50% methanolic and aqueous extracts. However, antitermite efficacy was found to be higher in aqueous extracts of samples collected from polluted sites than non-polluted sites. Results were found statistically significant, with the value of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient ‘r’=-.693. proving the negative correlation between average weight loss and antitermite efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo and in vitro Toxicity Studies of Crude and Partially Purified Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas in Wistar Albino Rats

A. Mahe, Y. Y. Muhammad, A. Ibrahim, A. Muhammad, I. K. Adam, M. K. Atiku, A. A. Imam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38137

Aims: Jatropha curcas (J. curcas) is a plant that has numerous medicinal and industrial applications. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo acute/sub chronic hepato-renal toxicity of crude methanol J. curcas leaf extract on albino rats, in vitro toxicity of the fractions and characterization of these fractions were carried out in this study.

Study Design: Twenty albino rats were grouped into four, orally administered; 0, 100, 200, and 250 mg/kg daily of the crude extract for 28 days.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University Kano and Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Bayero University Kano between July 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: Partially purified fractions of the extract were obtained by column chromatography. Brine Shrimp Lethality assay of the crude extract and fractions were carried out. FTIR, GC-MS and LC-MS were used to characterize the fractions, one-way anova and probit analysis were used for data analysis.

Results: The oral LD50 of J. curcas extract was found to be 2,391.65 mg/kg. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Direct bilirubin (D. BIL) and Albumin (ALB) showed significant (p < 0.05) differences while Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Total bilirubin (T. BIL) and Total protein (T.P) showed slight variations in some of the treated groups. Histological features of the liver showed dose dependent mild toxic effect of the extract. Creatinine and potassium levels showed significant (p < 0.05) differences while urea, chloride, sodium and bicarbonate levels slightly differ in some of the treated groups when compared to the control. Abnormal kidney histological features were only observed in the highest dose group. The crude leaf extract, fraction 1, and fraction 2 gave LC50 values of 109.07 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, and 883.26 µg/ml respectively. Fraction 1 indicated the presence of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, and oleanolic acid while fraction 2 showed fragments of hydroxyl hopanone.

Conclusion: This study showed various toxicity indices that revealed slight toxic effect of the crude methanol leaf extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methanolic Extract Induced Analgesic and Anti-pyretic Activity of Hemigraphis hirta

Khadiza-Tul-Kobra ., Sayeman Islam Niloy, Sadiur Rahman Sajon, Md. Sabbir Ahmed, Sharmin Jahan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37077

Objective: The objective of this research is to investigate the analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of Hemigraphis hirta.

Methods: Whole dried plant of Hemigraphis hirta was extracted with pure methanol. Analgesic activity was tested by both acetic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced paw licking test. And anti-pyretic activity was tested by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia test.

Results: In paw licking analgesic activity test, after 0- 5 minutes, p < 0.05 (44.79% inhibition) and after 30 minutes, the p < 0.001 (90.07% inhibition) in case of 200 mg/kg bodyweight which was more significant than 400 mg/kg body weight. But in both cases, we saw significant reduction of paw licking compared to standard group (Dioclofenac Sodium). In the contrary, in acetic acid induced writhing test the p value for reduction of writhing for dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was < 0.05 (72.45% inhibition) which was more significant than 400 mg/kg body weight. In this test, we also observed very significant reduction of writhing compared to standard group. In Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia test the methanolic extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight, reduced hyperthermia in mice in 1 hour observation and also lowering of temperature from 2 hours to 4 hours observation period in comparison to control (Paracetamol).

Conclusion: These finding suggests that Hemigraphis hirta can be a potential source of analgesic and anti-pyretic medication.