Open Access Short Research Article

Awareness of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among School Children in Johor, Malaysia

Syafawati Ghazali, Farida Islahudin, Ghazali Ismail

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37068

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, knowledge of HPV vaccination as well as acceptance of the HPV vaccination among female secondary school students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Respondents were selected using convenience sampling. The questionnaire was divided into four sections; demographics, knowledge of HPV, knowledge of HPV vaccination and acceptance of HPV vaccination.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in five selected secondary schools in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia between January 2017 and July 2017.

Methodology: We included 314 female respondents, aged 13 years old.

Respondents who were willing to complete the questionnaire were included with adult informed consent. Incomplete questionnaires were excluded from the study. A total score of 20 was calculated for overall knowledge of HPV (14 items on knowledge of HPV and 6 items on HPV vaccination). Overall knowledge was categorized as low (score 0-6), intermediate (score 7-13) and high (score 14-20).

Results: The overall knowledge level of HPV was low (mean score: 6.61 ± 4.67). Over two-thirds of respondents (n= 217, 69%) however, indicated their intention to get a HPV vaccination compared to those that were not willing to be vaccinated or unsure (n=97, 31%). Willingness of respondents to be vaccinated was significantly associated with the overall knowledge of HPV (P = 0.03). The main reason for vaccination non-acceptance were safety, side effects and efficacy concerns.

Conclusion: The intention to get vaccinated was significantly associated with overall knowledge of HPV. The need for education on HPV and its prevention among female secondary school students is therefore required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Variation Studies in Dermatoglyphic Patterns (Level 2 Details) of the Ikwerre Ethnic Group in Rivers State, Nigeria

C. W. Paul, J. N. Paul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/29243

Background to the Study: Dermatoglyphics have had several definitions but each boils down to a simple sentence ‘act, process or science of studying ridge patterns on the skin of the palm, fingers, foot and toes of primates. So much have been done on this area from the inception of the study till date. One of it is the ethnohistoric facts that can be obtained from dermatoglyphics and most recently its usefulness in tracing ancestry. There are lots of works on dermatoglyphics at level 1 details only last year we had a study on level 2 details which goes as far as revealing the uniqueness of such individuals or group of people under study. 

Aims: This study was aimed at establishing whether there is a variation in gender at level 2 details in the dermatoglyphic patterns of the Ikwerre people of Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  A Non-experimental analytical design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, University of Port Harcourt between March 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: 100 subjects were used for the study which comprised 58 males and 42 females. The data was captured using the standard electronic scanner device and classified into the 10 different patterns at level 2 details. The various patterns types: bifurcation, trifurcation, ridge ending, bridge, lake, double bifurcation, island, dot, ridge crossing and opposed bifurcation were counted with the aid of a laptop zooming tool for a clearer view. Data analysis was done using z-test of proportionality.

Results: Males had the following distributions: Ridge ending 33.8%, Opposed bifurcation 2.6%, Bridge 3.1%, Lake (enclosure) 7.2% Bifurcation 43.9%, Double bifurcation 1.2%, Dot 2.5%, Trifurcation 2.2%, Island 1.4% Ridge crossing 2.1% while the females had the following: Ridge ending 10.6%, Opposed bifurcation 2.9%, Bridge 2.4%, Lake (enclosure) 9.9%, Bifurcation 51.8%, Double bifurcation 2.2%, Dot 5.9%, Trifurcation 8.2%, Island 2.9%, Ridge crossing 3.2%.

Conclusion: The results have revealed the distribution/ prevalence of the level 2 details  of the dermatoglyphic patterns seen in the Ikwerre people and have also shown that there was sexual dimorphism in the distribution of these patterns. On comparison, there was a statistical significant difference (p=.05) between the distribution of patterns in the males and females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Novel Method for the Analysis of the Drug in Low Concentration Using an Antidiabetic Drug ‘Voglibose’ for the Study

Shreedevi Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar Agarwal, Andhe Pallavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36994

Aim: To develop a novel method for the analysis of the drug in low concentration using an anti diabetic drug ‘voglibose’ for the study.

Study Design: Analysis of the drug plays an important role in its development. Assay and content uniformity are the two tests required for establishing quality of a pharmaceutical product. Drug dissolution testing is routinely used to provide critical in vitro drug release profiles. Normally, all these tests are done using HPLC to obtain and analyze the chromatograms but, this procedure becomes challenging as the concentration of the drug reduces. In such conditions, alternative methods have to be established or different instruments have to be used. Voglibose is one such antidiabetic drug which is used in very low concentrations (0.2 mg to 0.3 mg per tablet) in pharmaceutical industries for the treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia. The existing methods of analysis for assay and content uniformity have a number of challenges. In dissolution studies the drug gets diluted to further lower levels and hence the conventional methods do not produce any results. Currently no method is available for dissolution studies for this drug. Thus the paper aims at establishing a suitable method for the analysis of the drug.

Methodology: The main aim of this work is to develop a common method suitable for the analysis of the drug. The paper mentions of applying the concepts of drug enzyme interaction as a method of transduction for the analysis of the drug. Silicon wafer surfaces were used as a sensor surface to study the drug- enzyme interactions which caused fluorescence and florescent images were obtained by the fluorescent microscope and further processed using image processing techniques to quantify the concentration of the drug.

Results: It was observed that fluorescence was obtained only due to drug enzyme interaction. The corresponding fluorescent images were captured and their intensity values were analyzed using image processing techniques and the concentrations of different samples were quantified. The method is also used to quantify the concentrations as used in dissolution method. There were other two samples prepared which mentions that fluorescence is not observed by single coating either alpha amylase or voglibose on the silicon surfaces.

Conclusion: This work was successfully carried out towards developing a common method suitable for the analysis of the drug-“Voglibose” used in low concentration; for all the parameters including assay, content uniformity and dissolution. This work also contributes for dissolution studies for the drug which had no methods available till date for quantifying the concentration of the drug corresponding to 0.3mg in 900ml of buffer. Thus the work establishes a novel method that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry for the analysis of drug in low concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimalarial Activity of Solvents Extracts of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark and Partial Characterization of Most Active Extract(s)

A. A. Imam, M. K. Atiku, I. U. Muhammad, M. D. Ezema, A. J. Alhassan, A. Idi, A. Mohammed, H. Abdullahi, I. Alexander

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36236

Alstonia boonei, a plant locally called ‘Egbu’ in South Eastern Nigeria is used traditionally in the treatment of malaria in the region. This research was carried out to evaluate in vitro antimalarial activity of different solvents extract (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane) of Alstonia boonei against NK-65 Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infected mouse blood. The antimalarial activity of the extracts was determined by calculation of percentage parasitaemia. GCMS analysis was conducted for the detection of possible bioactive compound(s) in the most active extract(s). Results showed that all the extracts had intrinsic antimalarial properties that were dose dependent. Furthermore, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in mean percentage anti-malarial activity of all the extracts when compared with the placebo (normal saline) and standard anti-malarial drugs Chloroquine and ACT, with aqueous extract showing highest antiplasmodial activity of 95.24% at 2000 µg/ml. GCMS results revealed the presence of 3-Nitrophthalic acid and coumarine as possible bioactive compounds presents in the extracts. The present study demonstrated that Alstonia boonei possess strong antimalarial activity with aqueous extracts possessing the highest activity. Thus, supporting the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Docking Study and Antifungal Activity Evaluation of Some 1,3-benzo[d]thiazole Analogs: A Promotion in Synthetic Method with Nano-γ-Al2O3/BF3-n under Solvent Free Conditions

Bi Bi Fatemah Mirjalili, Soghra Kabnadideh, Kamiar Zomorodian, Leila Zamani, Masoomeh Faghih, Zahra Haghighijoo, Samira Kananizadehgan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-26
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35831

Aim: Nano-γ-Al2O3/BF3-n was applied for the synthesis of 1,3-benzo[d]thiazole derivatives as a new solid acid catalyst. Benzothiazole is used as a pharmacological agent with a wide variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antitumor and antiviral properties. In the view we have synthesized a series of 1,3-benzo[d]thiazole derivatives (T1-T10) and screened for their antibacterial and antifungal abilities.

Methods: In this work, nano-γ-Al2O3/BF3-n was applied for the synthesis of 1,3-benzo[d]thiazole derivatives. Ten compounds (T1-T10) were screened for antimicrobial activity by broth micro dilution methods as recommended by CLSI.

Results: We have demonstrated a simple method for the synthesis of 1,3-benzo[d]thiazoles with using nano-γ-Al2O3/BF3-n as a new solid acid catalyst under solvent free condition at 110 °C .Also, of the tested compounds N1,N1-dimethyl-4-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)aniline (T8) and 2(2-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3-benzothiazole (T10) inhibited the growth of all examined fungi. Determination the probable binding model of compounds T8 and T10 in to Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme CYP51 active site was performed with docking simulation.

Conclusion: We have demonstrated a simple method for the synthesis of 1,3-benzo[d]thiazoles with using nano-γ-Al2O3/BF3-n as a new heterogeneous solid acid. Biological studies showed that some of the synthetic compounds including T8 and T10 exhibited a great activity against tested candida and dermatophytes.