Open Access Minireview Article

Biological Activities of Nitro Steroids

Valery M. Dembitsky, Tatyana A. Gloriozova, Vladimir V. Poroikov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36196

The present review describes the biological activities of synthetic nitro steroids. More than fifty biologically active nitro steroids showed an analeptic, antineoplastic, anesthetic, neuroprotector, immunosuppressant, dermatologic properties, and also show other biological activities. The structures and activities of a selection of nitro steroids are reported. Also, some new and additional activities are predicted with the computer program PASS, based on structure–activity relationships (SAR), which point toward new possible applications of these lipid compounds. This review emphasizes the role of the nitro steroids, as an important source of leads for drug discovery.

Open Access Minireview Article

Pharmacological Activities of Epithio Steroids

Valery M. Dembitsky, Tatyana A. Gloriozova, Vladimir V. Poroikov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36199

The present review describes biological activities of semi- and synthetic epithio steroids. About fifty biologically active compounds have shown confirmed antitumor, immunosuppressant, or aromatase inhibition and other activities. More than a quarter of all studied steroids belong to the group of anabolic steroids, and they showed many new and additional activities. Epithio steroids possess mainly cytotoxic activities, although the predicted biological activity showed a broad spectrum of activities. As we found, the position of the epithio group in the core of steroids can significantly change the activity of steroids. The structures, as well as reported and predicted activities of a selection of epithio steroids, are reported. With the computer program PASS based on structure–activity relationships (SAR), some additional activities are also predicted, which point toward new possible applications of these lipids. This review emphasizes the role of epithio steroids as an important source of leads for drug discovery, and they are of great interest to chemists, physicians, biologists, pharmacologists and the pharmaceutical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fermented Soya Bean Supplements on Thyroid Profile and Serum Electrolytes of High Fat Diet-induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rabbits

N. M. Sada, Y. Tanko, A. Mohammed, A. A. U. Dikko, A. Abdulrazak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35680

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fermented soya bean supplements on thyroid profile and serum electrolytes of high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes in rabbits.

Twenty rabbits weighing between 1 kg – 1.5 kg were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by feeding the animals with high fat diet for eight weeks. Rabbits having fasting blood glucose levels of 7.2 mmol/L and above after the induction were used for the study. The animals were grouped into four groups of five rabbits each: Group 1 (diabetic control) received distilled water ad libitum for six weeks; Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed with 12.5%, 25% and 50% fermented soya bean supplements respectively for six weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the rabbits were euthanized by cervical dislocation and blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture. The serum was extracted after clotting and centrifugation for the determination of thyroid profile and electrolyte levels. The results showed a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in serum T3 and T4 concentrations, and a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the serum TSH concentration in the groups fed with the supplements when compared with the diabetic control. Furthermore, as regards to the serum electrolytes concentrations there was  a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in sodium ion concentration in the group fed 12.5% soya bean supplement when compared with the control and a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in potassium ion concentrations in all the groups fed with the soya beans supplements, as  compared to control. Chloride ion concentrations were significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in groups fed 25% and 50 % supplement as compared to control, while bicarbonate ion concentrations were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in groups fed with 25% and 50% supplement when compared with the control. In conclusion fermented soya bean supplementation suppressed thyroid activity and improved serum electrolyte concentrations; it may be used to alleviate hyperthyroidism and electrolyte disturbances in diabetes patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Typing of Brucella melitensis Isolated from Patients and Animals by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis from Iran

Nasrin Bahmani, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Seyed Hamid Hashemi, Abbas Farahani, Reza Mirnejad, Parviz Mohajeri, Manoochehr Karami, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34911

Background: The Brucellosis is recognized as a significant public health problem, with major economic and financial burdens in countries where the disease remains endemic. The disease is one of the most important worldwide zoonosis affecting livestock and humans. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize Brucella strains isolated from human and animal samples in two provinces of Iran.

Methods: Twenty seven Brucella strains isolated from patients and animals during April 2015 - December 2016. Thirteen human and fourteen animal strains were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed by amplification of fragment 1100bp omp2a gene using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Isolates were genotypically characterized by XbaI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique.

Results: In PFGE analysis totally, 7 common clones and 3 single clones were obtained. In genotyping, in two clones/clusters, human isolates were grouped with genotypes from animal isolates. Also PFGE results indicated 21 Brucella strains an overall similarity higher than 90%, and three clusters based on 100% similarity were revealed.

Conclusion: According to dendrogram clinical strains had a high degree of homology compared to animal strains. The information of this study indicating a close genetic relatedness or common origin of the isolates in the two geographical region of Iran and it implies that B. melitensis cross-infected between human and livestock.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Bryopsis pennata and Chaetomorpha antennina against Multidrug Resistant Morganella morganii and Salmonella species Isolated from Healthy Individuals

Folashade Agbaje-Daniels, Agape Babalola, Ifeoluwa Akintayo, Adeyemi Adeleye, Denzil Beukes

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35924

The problem of antibiotic resistance is fast becoming a pandemic which has necessitated the need for new drugs discovery. This study was carried out to screen two green algal species- Bryopsis pennata andChaetomorpha anteninna for antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic enteric organisms (Morganella morganii and Salmonella species) obtained from healthy individuals. Algal samples were obtained and processed. Crude extraction was carried out with dichloromethane/methanol (2:1) while the antibacterial screening was done by agar-well diffusion method. Results revealed that M. morganii was 3.37% of the total isolates recovered while Salmonella species was 6.74%. Result also showed that C. antennina was active against all the strains of Salmonella species with inhibitory zones ranging from 10 mm to 17 mm and the M. morganii with inhibitory zone of 11 mm while B. pennata showed inhibitory activities against only S. pullorum and S. enterica subspecies diarizonae with inhibitory zones of 12 mm and 7 mm respectively as well as the M. morganii strain with 14 mm. The antibacterial activities observed from these green algae showed that Bryopsis pennata and Chaetomorpha antennina from the West African coast are promising in the quest for new drugs with potentials against multidrug resistant strains of bacteria and therefore should be intensely researched into.