Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Amoxicillin Antibiotic from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by Activated Carbon Prepared from Azolla filiculoides

Davoud Balarak, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Hamideh Akbari, Ali Joghtaei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35607

The Batch adsorption experiments were investigated for the adsorption of Amoxicillin (AMO) antibiotic on activated carbon prepared from Azolla filiculoides (ACAF). This study is influenced by different parameters such as ACAF dose, initial AMO dose and reaction time. The experimental results indicated that the whenever ACAF amount increased from 0.15 to 0.60 g/L at initial AMO concentration 100 mg/L, removal percentage of AMO increased from 49% to 90%. The AMO removal was decreased with an increase in the initial AMO dose.

The experimental isotherms and kinetic data were analyzed with three types of kinetics (First-Order, second order kinetic and Intraparticle diffusion) and four types of isotherms (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and the results showed that biosorption data were fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model. The value of Free energy of adsorption (E) obtained from D-R isotherm was 5.95 KJ/mol, which represents the physical adsorption of AMO on ACAF. All the finding showed that activated carbon prepared from Azolla filiculoides, a available and abundant biosorbent, could be used for the removal of AMO antibiotics from aqueous environments

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacists’ Perspectives on Self-medication by Patrons of Community Pharmacies in Jos, Nigeria

Maxwell Longji Patrick Dapar, Benjamin Nasara Joseph, Augustine Christopher Pwul, Noel Nenman Wannang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34945

Self-medication with prescription-only-medicine is an important driver of non-rational use of medicines which is highly prevalent in Nigeria, with implications on patients’ health outcomes. Although high accessibility to community pharmacies gives strategic advantage to the Pharmacists to promote responsible self-medication and rational use of medicines, there is a paucity of reported studies on perceptions of community pharmacists regarding self-medication with Prescription-only-Medicines (POMs) among their clients. This study investigated views, attitudes and experiences of community pharmacists regarding self-medication with POMs. It sought to identify attitudes and experiences of community pharmacists on the subject. A cross-sectional design was explored using semi-structured pre-tested questionnaires administered to respondents. Eighty four registered pharmacists in the study area returned completed questionnaires. Data was managed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic characteristics and attitudes of respondents. Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare respondents’ views in terms of the volume of POMs dispensed without prescription, p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant for association. Most Respondents (99%) reported receiving requests for POMs without prescription, some as high as 150 requests in the week preceding data collection. Although 77% of respondents declined to supply POMs requested without prescriptions, 58% of them were of the view that they had the competence to dispense some POMs with proven efficacy and safety stable patients on long term therapy. This study highlighted the respondents’ views and attitudes towards strict control of POMs supply to optimize patients’ drug therapy needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hemorrhoid Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Bali North-East Nigeria for the Treatment of Hemorrhoids (Pile)

A. Ukwubile Cletus, Musa Y. Dibal, Troy S. Malgwi, M. Ibrahim Hadiza, Y. Abdulrahman Adama, U. S. Abubakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/25433

A medicinal plant is any plant in which one or more of its organs contain substances that can be used for therapeutic purpose or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. In this research, six (6) selected plants were screened for antihemorrhoid activities in mice. The extracts were obtained from whole plant or parts of plants such as root, stem, leaves and seeds and include the following plants: Khaya senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Parkia biglobosa, Newbouldia leavis and Prosopis africana. Hemorrhoid (pile) was induced in a group of five mice of five animals per group using Jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas, Euphorbiaceae)(I.P) and using Pilex granule as the control drug. Group I received 10 mg/kg Pilex granule, and 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg b.w of  A. leiocarpus, N. leavis, P. africana, and KEP for groups II, III, IV and V respectively. A. leiocarpus and KEP (mixture of K. senegalensis, E. hirta and P. africana) showed the highest antihemorrhoidal activities in mice than the other plants and compared with the standard drug Pilex granule. However, all the plant extracts showed significant recto - anal coefficient at potent levels. The study showed that the extracts of the plants investigated possessed antihemorrhoid activities with A. leiocarpus and KEP demonstrating the highest activity in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Are Depot Anti-psychotics Associated with Longer Persistence in Treatment Compared with Oral Antipsychotics among Patients with Schizophrenia?

Increase Ibukun Adeosun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35581

Aim: Non-adherence with antipsychotics is associated with poor outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. It was anticipated that drop-out from treatment due to non-compliance with oral anti-psychotics could be abated with the use of depot antipsychotics. However previous studies are divergent regarding the association between persistence in treatment and the use of depot antipsychotics. This study aimed to compare treatment persistence among out-patients with schizophrenia receiving depot versus oral antipsychotics in Lagos, Nigeria.

Methodology: Relevant clinical data of out-patients with schizophrenia (n=160) were retrieved one year post-hospitalisation at a public psychiatric facility in Nigeria. Treatment persistence (time to all cause treatment discontinuation) among the cohort of patients was determined using the Kaplan-Meier Survival analyses. Persistence in treatment between patients receiving depot versus oral antipsychotic medications alone was compared using the log rank test.

Results:  Nearly half (49.1%) of the cohort dropped out of treatment within one month of discharge, while 18.2% persisted for one year. There was no significant difference (p=0.727) in the mean duration of treatment persistence between patients receiving depot antipsychotics (17.4(±2.4) weeks), and those receiving oral medications alone (19.4 (±2.2) weeks).

Conclusion: There is a high rate of drop-out from treatment among patients with schizophrenia, after discharge from in-patient care. Prescription of depot medications was not associated with longer persistence treatment in the studied cohort. This finding highlights the need to develop interventions to facilitate treatment persistence among patients with schizophrenia.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Analysis Regarding Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Hyper-CVAD and MEC Chemo-Protocols in Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia from Lahore, Pakistan

Mahrukh Yousaf, Usama Asif, Khurram Aamir, Inaam-ur-rehman ., Sehrish Haider, Afzaal Bashir, Furqan K. Hashmi, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Zikria Saleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35631

Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is potentially curable disease of white blood cells (WBCs) especially granulocytes. Our objective was to evaluate comparative efficacy and safety of two chemotherapy protocols i.e. hyper-CVAD and MEC in patients with CML who were unresponsive to conventional therapies.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 60 patients with blast crisis phase of myelogenous leukemia (CML) who are the candidates of allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT) where half of the patients were treated with hyper-CVAD and half with MEC chemotherapy protocol. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical program for social sciences).

Results: Both hyper-CVAD and MEC chemotherapy protocols produced a decrease in neutrophil and platelet count. Blast crisis is also associated with thrombocytopenia. So, these regimens further decrease the platelet count in blast crisis and their efficacy is questionable. Allogenic stem cell transplant is a better option and assessment of its effectiveness may be studied. In case of SGOT and SGPT, hyper-CVAD produced significant elevation whereas MEC effect was variable showing statistically insignificant elevation. Both protocols showed increase in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. In case of efficacy parameters hyper-CVAD showed greater response than MEC protocol. Higher molecular response of 70% was found with hyper-CVAD as compared to 60% of MEC protocol. Cytogenetic response was also higher in hyper-CVAD group.

Conclusion: Due to higher efficacy and tolerable toxicity profile of hyper-CVAD chemotherapy protocol, it can be considered as standard therapeutic option whereas MEC chemotherapy protocol can be reserved as an effective alternative in cases where the disease is less aggressive or less tolerable to hyper-CVAD. However, hepatic parameters must not be overlooked while considering any of these protocols and possible adjustments should be made accordingly.