Open Access Case Report

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antibiotic Self-medication Pattern among University Students in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Gabriel Kambale Bunduki, Mupenzi Mumbere, François Katsuva Mbahweka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/31848

Background: Self-medication with antibiotics has been reported among university students in many countries, but no study has been conducted on this issue in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Aim: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and behaviours of university students in Eastern DRC regarding antibiotics self-medication.

Methods: A questionnaire-based data collection instrument was used. It was distributed to the students of the Université Catholique du Graben (UCG), a university comprising 7 faculties in Butembo, Eastern DRC and welcomes an average of 1100 students per year.

Results: From the 500 questionnaires distributed, 430 students responded (response rate 86%). Self-medication with antibiotics was influenced by gender, age, class level and the faculty. Students frequently self-medicated in 44.6% for genitourinary infections (76.1%), catarrh (63.9%), cough (54.1%), sore throat (49.2%), fever (26.9%) and diarrhoea (18.7). Factors influencing self-medication were predominantly the illness considered not serious for consultation (75.4%), whereas prior experience on antibiotics use and knowledge about drugs constitute respectively 60.3% and 54.6% of SMA reasons. The most used antibiotics were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (75.1%), penicillin (69.5%), amoxicillin (65.9%), ciprofloxacin (54.1%), erythromycin (51.5%) and doxycycline (40.8%).

Conclusion: This study shows that prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo among university students is alarmingly high and this situation may increase antimicrobial resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Refractory Seizure in Infants through EEG: The Case of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Tehran’s Children’s Medical Center

Malihe Kadivar, Mahboobeh Mohammadi, Ziba Mosayebi, Reza Shervinbadv, Raziee Sangsari, Bahram Yarali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/33922

Objective: Phenobarbital, phenytoin and Benzodiazepins are the most common treatments for resistant neonatal seizure [1]. Drug of choice in the treatment of neonatal seizure should be more effective and have fewer side effects. This study examines the effect of Levetriacetam (LEV) in the treatment of resistant neonatal seizure, using EEG (electroencephalogram).

Methods: This is a clinical trial study that lasted 1 year, from March 2016 to March 2017.

20 neonates with early detection of seizure were hospitalized at the NICU of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran. These neonates included both term and preterm neonates over 30 weeks and more than 2000 gr, who did not respond to a single dose of Phenobarbital and Phenytoin. The results of statistical tests were analyzed and significant level was considered (p<0.05).

Results: 85% of the patients were male with average age of 13 days. The most common cause of seizure in 45% cases was Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE). 65% of the newborns were seizure free after 24 hours of taking LEV whereas 80% of them after 72 hours. The 3 neonates who did not respond to LEV were endotracheal intubation. The average loading dose of LEV was 32±10.5, and the average maintenance dose was 18±8.3. No side effects were observed in using LEV.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that LEV is effective in unresponsive seizure to Phenobarbital and Phenytoin. It can, equally, reduce seizure frequency in newborns. Due to very low side effects and transient, it can also be used as a second-line therapy in the treatment of resistant neonatal seizure. However, multi-centered studies with a higher sample volume in the form of clinical trial are needed for further investigations on this topic.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Studies of Food Interaction with Dihydroartemisinin – Piperaquine Antimalarial Tablet

Sunday O. Awofisayo, Chioma N. Igwe, Nkechinyerem A. Jonathan, Alphonsus I. Francis, Peter D. Ojobor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/28516

The study assessed molecular interactions between the actives in antimalarial dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) tablet and food components using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Soluble starch, lactose, albumin, sunflower oil and carbonated drinks were pelletized with powdered DP tablet simultaneously using potassium bromide (KBr) method and analyzed with essential FTIR (eFTlR) software. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and piperaquine (PQ) showed characteristic bond vibrations consistent with reference to literature values. Carbohydrates food components had no significant effect on the DHA and PQ characteristic vibrations. Albumin powder shifted the aromatic (C-H) stretching of PQ from 3009 to 3387 cm-1, and aliphatic (C-H) stretching at 2874 to 2935 cm-1. DHA (C-H) stretching at 3419 cm-1 was shifted to 3387 cm-1 on admixture with albumin without significant shift for endoperoxide link (i.e., 875 to 881 cm-1), (C=O) stretching (i.e.,1735 to 1743 cm-1) and (O-H) stretching (2926 to 2928 cm-1). Sunflower oil caused a shift of the DHA spectra feature for (C-H) stretching at 3419 to 3385 cm-1. Sunflower oil also shifted the aromatic (C-H) bending for PQ from 775 to 721 cm-1. Carbonated drink admixture with DP tablet significantly shifted all the spectra features of PQ and DHA. Albumin and carbonated drinks produced significant changes in the spectra features of the actives in DP. Ingestion of protein meals or carbonated drinks with DP tablet may affect the bioavailability of the actives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Archachatina marginata Haemolymph Potentiates Hypoglycemic Effect by Mimicking Insulin in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

S. K. Adeboye, A. T. Ogundajo, O. O. Ajayi, O. M. Oluba

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/33786

Aims: This study investigates the hypoglycemic potential of Archachatina marginata haemolymph and its mechanism in streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: One factor experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria between January to June, 2015.

Methodology: The rats were set into four groups (n=5). Group 1 - Non-diabetic control (NDC), Group 2 - Diabetic Control (DC), Group 3 - Diabetic rats with 1 mL administration of snail haemolymph (DSS1), Group 4 - Diabetic rats with 2 mL snail haemolymph administration (DSS2). The blood glucose concentration of each rat was taken and thereafter, they were weighed and then administered with 55 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) peritoneally non-diabetic control group (NDC). Rats with blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL and above were considered diabetic. Haemolymph of 1 mL and 2 mL were administered to rats in DSS1 and DSS2 respectively while   DC received 2 mL distilled water for 14 consecutive days. Physiological orangs and blood samples were harvested for various analysis.

Results: The A. marginata haemolymph significantly improved the plasma concentration of insulin and reduced plasma glucose level in a dose dependent manner P=.05.

Conclusion: The A. marginata haemolymph has potential to exact hypoglycemic effect and improve the insulin concentration in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.