Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Effects of Intravenous Administration of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in U46619- and Noradrenaline-infused Rats

Daisuke Chino, Satsuki Yuda, Yukiko Suzuki, Fumi Hatsuyama, Kyosuke Sato, Keisuke Obara, Yoshio Tanaka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32604

Experimental studies and epidemiological surveys have indicated that chronic oral administration of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexaenoic (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients. However, few reports have described the acute blood pressure lowering effects of these PUFAs. In this study, we determined the acute effects of DHA and EPA on blood pressure of rats with increased blood pressure resulting from continuous injection of pressor substances. U46619 (a TXA2 receptor agonist) and noradrenaline (NA) were continuously infused (500 μg/kg/h each) into urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats and produced sustained elevated mean blood pressure (MBP). In both U46619- and NA-infused rats, bolus administration of DHA (3–30 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner, although the MBP reduction was greater in U46619-infused rats. Similarly, administration of EPA (3–30 mg/kg, i.v.) also induced a greater reduction in MBP of U46619-infused rats. In contrast, bolus administration of linoleic acid (3–30 mg/kg, i.v.), an n-3 type unsaturated fatty acid, failed to reduce blood pressure in all drug-infused rats. Finally, administration of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (0.3–100 μg/kg, i.v.) showed a similar blood pressure drop in all drug-infused rats. These findings clearly indicate that both DHA and EPA induce acute blood pressure reduction in anesthetized rats, and suggest that the blood pressure drop is mediated via the TXA2 receptor. These characteristic blood pressure lowering effects of these PUFAs are likely to be useful for prevention and treatment of hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Biological Evaluations of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan

Saiqa Ishtiaq, Tahir Ali, Bashir Ahmad, Fareeha Anwar, Muhammad Shaharyar Khan Afridi, Humera Shaheen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31698

Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris (AMGRS) has traditionally been used a folk medicine in the treatment of inflammation, gonorrhea and piles without scientific evidence. Therefore, methanolic (MeOH) extract of AMGRS was studied for anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and enzymatic inhibition activities in addition to phytochemical screening to ascertain the realism of the folk claims. Anti-nociceptive activity was screened by hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice with different doses of MeOH extract of AMGRS i.e. 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats with different doses of MeOH extract of AMGRS i.e. 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg. While, anticholinesterase and protease inhibition was carried to screen MeOH extract for its relevant therapeutic uses. Hot plate technique and tail immersion method demonstrated dose related antinociceptive response starting from 300 mg/kg to maximum effect seen at 600 mg/kg dose. Acetic acid induced writing produced 47% pain protection during 1st phase (0-15 minutes) at 600 mg/kg dose. Likewise, carrageenan induced rat paw edema test showed 42% reduction in edema at 4th h after oral administration of dose (600 mg/kg). The MeOH extract showed mild anticholinesterase inhibition (24.29±0.57) while exhibited significant protease inhibition activity (60.52±0.18). The present investigation suggests that this plant possesses substantial anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and protease inhibition activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Efficiency of Dissolved Air Flotation in Removal Penicillin G Potassium from Aqueous Solutions

Shahin Ahmadi, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31180

Antibiotics are a large group of pharma compounds which are stable in environment. Antibiotics are considered among the major pollutants in water environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the dissolved air flotation in removal penicillin G potassium from aqueous solutions. This study was an empirical-lab study which the dissolved air flotation was applied in laboratory scale. After determination of the optimal condition of pH and the dosage of poly aluminum, the effect of the effective parameters including the concentration of the coagulant (20, 50, 75, 100 mg/L), penicillin G (25, 50, 100,200), flotation time (5, 10, 15 and 20 sec), saturation pressure (3, 3.5, 4 and 4.5 atm) on the removal efficiency of the penicillin G and COD by dissolve air flotation was studied. The results showed that the dissolved air flotation can reduce COD and penicillin G up to 70.41% and 67.45%, respectively. The optimum condition was as follows: pH=6, initial concentration of penicillin G = 25 mg/L, coagulation time = 10 min, flotation time= 20 sec, saturation pressure= 4 atm and PAC concentration = 20 mg/L. Also, the results showed that the removal efficiency is reduced by increasing the turbidity in the flotation process. The results of this study revealed that the dissolved air flotation process can be effective method to remove the penicillin G from aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Leaf and Leaf Callus Extracts of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq.

Nissar Ahmad Reshi, Sudarshana Mysore Shankarsingh, Girish Vasanaika Hodiyala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32191

Aim: The study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro hepatoprotective activity of leaf and leaf callus extracts of Orthosiphon aristatus against alcohol induced toxicity using HepG2 cell line.

Materials and Methods: Leaf segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium fortified with different auxins alone and in combination. Prior to the determination of hepatoprotective property leaf and leaf callus extracts were subjected to the toxic dose study. The degree of hepatoprotection of extracts was determined by measuring cell viability percentage by MTT assay. Leaf and leaf callus extracts were subjected to the preliminary phytochemical analysis.

Results: Maximum percentage of callus formation (94%) was obtained in MS medium augmented with 2 mg/L of 2,4-D. HepG2 cells were pretreated with the different concentrations (below toxic dose) of leaf and leaf callus extracts for 72 hrs. followed by alcohol intoxication. Results revealed that aqueous leaf extract pretreated HepG2 cells show 90% cell viability compared to the standard silymarin pretreated HepG2 cells which showed 81% cell viability. Leaf callus extracts also showed significant hepatoprotective activity where ethanolic callus extract pretreated HepG2 cells showed 82% viability after intoxication with alcohol. Results revealed that HepG2 cell viability percentage is dose dependent. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of different secondary metabolites in leaf and leaf callus extracts.

Conclusion: The bio-efficacy study confirms the presence of secondary metabolites of hepatoprotective nature. Callus mediated tissues show hepatoprotection which paves a way for the mass production of desired biologically active principles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Drug Targets Identification in Breast Cancer by Computationally Based DNA Microarray Analysis

Syed Aun Muhammad, Nighat Fatima, Hasan Afzaal, Ziaullah Shah, Amjad Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32138

Aims: The availability of large cDNA datasets make it feasible to find new genetic variants. In this study, we focused to perform micro array differential analysis of breast cancer dataset to reveal genetic mutants of this disease.

Methodology: Human drug targets of breast cancer (BC) was found by comparing normal breast tissue samples and breast invasive cancer samples using GSE31138 DNA microarray dataset. The dataset was accessed from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) NCBI. The differential analysis was performed using “R” software and Bioconductor packages.

Results: In differential expressed genes (DEGs), LIFR and PSMD10 were significant BC-linked genes. Matrix analysis of these DEGs showed interdependencies between the probe levels of two groups. Gene ontology and interactomic analysis explored the functional enriched map. These critical protein targets are involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, cell morphogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and positive regulation of cell proliferation and their dysregulation are responsible for tumorigenesis.

Conclusion: These protein targets not only reveal the understandings about BC but can also progress into biological markers for diagnosis or treatment.