Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Proximate and Antibacterial Properties of Milled Carica papaya (Pawpaw) Peels and Seeds

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Eberechi M. Harry, Ifeanyi A. Orji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26808

The study, conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria between May and August, 2015, determined and compared the proximate (percentage, %) and antibacterial (millimeter, mm) properties of milled Carica papaya Linn peels and seeds, using standard protocols. Each sample extract (100 mg/ml) was tested against three bacteria - Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The percentage yield of the peels (61.29 %) was lower (p<0.05) than that of the seeds (74.34 %). The ash (14.07±0.06) and carbohydrate (53.22±0.05) in the peels was respectively higher (p<0.05) than that in the seeds (10.51±0.02, 22.37±0.03) while the fibre (24.09±0.07), fat (0.99±0.08), protein (4.21±0.02) and moisture (3.42±0.03) in the peels was lower (p<0.05) than the corresponding content in the seeds (26.31±0.02, 29.62±0.02, 7.41±0.01 and 3.78±0.04). Beside P. aeruginosa (that was not susceptible to the aqueous extract of the seeds), the activity of the aqueous extract of the peels against E. coli and S. aureus was lower (p<0.05) than that of the seeds. The activity of the ethanol extract of the peels against E. coli (17.33±1.15), S. aureus (15.00±1.73) and P. aeruginosa (14.33±1.15) was in each case higher (p<0.05) than that of the seeds (14.33±0.58, 0.00±0.00, 9.67±1.15). The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the seeds respectively had no activity against P. aeruginosaand S. aureus. Thus, the pawpaw peels could be a durable source for mineral and carbohydrate with broader activity and higher potency against the tested bacteria while the seeds could be a source for protein, dietary fibre and fat, but with limited durability and activity against the tested bacteria. Harnessing the results of this study may enhance the use of these samples in diets and drugs to ultimately reduce their environmental burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Renal and Cardio Protective Effects of Aliskiren and Pentoxifylline Alone and in Combination on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Nageh A. El-Mahdy, Thanaa A. El-Masry, Karima I. El-Desouky, Sahar K. Ghanem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26248

Background/Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the renoprotective and cardioprotective effect of aliskiren and pentoxifylline, alone and in combination, on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each, namely the control (Group I), diabetes (Group II), diabetic treated with aliskiren (Group III), diabetic treated with pentoxifylline (Group IV), and diabetic treated with aliskiren-pentoxifylline combination (Group V). Aliskiren (10 mg/kg/day) and pentoxifylline (55 mg/kg/ day) were given by oral-gavage once daily for 8 weeks.  Renal function, oxidative stress parameters, immunohistochemical detection for transforming growth factor β, and kidney and heart histology were determined.

Results: Serum urea and creatinine reduced significantly in the three treated groups, Heart reduced glutathione (GSH) increased significantly only in aliskiren-pentoxifylline treated group, while kidney GSH increased significantly in the three treated groups. Kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced significantly in the three treated groups, while heart MDA reduced significantly only in aliskiren-pentoxifylline treated group. No significant changes were detected in heart nitric oxide in all treated groups, while kidney nitric oxide reduced significantly in the aliskiren alone and aliskiren-pentoxifylline treated groups. Our results show that heart tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) reduced significantly only in the aliskiren-pentoxifylline treated group. On the other hand, kidney TNF-α reduced significantly in the pentoxifylline alone and aliskiren-pentoxifylline treated groups. Immunohistochemical detection of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in kidney and heart sections shows positive TGF-β and a high intensity of staining in the diabetic group, while it shows only mild to moderate staining in the three treated groups. Histopathological examination of kidney and heart sections shows more improvement in the aliskiren-pentoxifylline combination therapy than aliskiren and pentoxifylline monotherapy.

Conclusion: Combining aliskiren with pentoxifylline provided a greater reduction in heart and kidney damage than either drug alone in STZ induced diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Senecio pterophorus DC. (Asteraceae) Essential Oils: Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Larvicidal Activities

Oladipupo A. Lawal, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, H. M. M. Mzimela, Andy R. Opoku, Adebola O. Oyedeji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25250

The antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and larvicidal activities of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Senecio pterophorus DC were investigated in the present study. The oils were tested for the antibacterial effects against eleven reference microorganisms using agar-disc diffusion and microdilution-broth methods. The oils exhibited weak to moderate activity against the tested bacterial strains. The highest antibacterial activity was against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and ATCC 3983), Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4983) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 0030). The zones of inhibition ranged from 14.0±2.0 to 21.0±2.6 mm while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found between 0.63 and 10.0 mg/mL. In the antioxidant assay, the oils displayed poor ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and chelate iron (II) metal, but showed significant scavenging activity comparable to the standard antioxidants (Butyl hydroxyl anisole, butyl hydroxyl toluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol) towards nitric oxide and hydroxyl scavenging procedures. The percentage mortalities of the oils at 250 mg/ml against Artemia salina nauplii and fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus was 100%. However, the lethal concentrations (LC50) values ranged from 12.15 to 13.23 µg/mL while and LC90 was found between 30.50 and 39.45 µg/mL against Artemia salina nauplii. In addition, LC50 and LC90 values of 12.15-13.23 µg/mL and 30.50-39.45 µg/mL respectively were found against fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from the leaves of Senecio pterophorus DC (Asteraceae) and investigate the antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and larvicidal activities using standard procedures.

Study Design: The study involves the hydrodistillation of essential oils from the air-dried plant materials and investigation of the biological potentials of the oil.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh plant materials of Senecio pterophorus were collected at full flowering stage in September, 2007 from Tongaat, Mtunzini and Gingindlovu in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

Methodology: About 500 g of air-dried plant samples was shredded and their oils were obtained by separate hydrodistillation for 4 h at normal pressure, according to the British Pharmacopoeia. The antibacterial activity was determined by using agar-disc diffusion and microdilution-broth methods while the antioxidant assay was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and chelate iron (II) metal procedures as well by means of nitric oxide and hydroxyl scavenging assays. The cytotoxic and larvicidal activities were conducted by means of brine shrimps (Artemisia salina) and standard larvicidal procedures respectively.

Results: The essential oils displayed potents activities to the tested organisms.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed that the essential oils of S. pterophorus may serves as potential phytochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Process Parameters on Compressibility, Solubility and Release Characteristics of Melt Sonocrystallized Fenofibrate

Sachinkumar Patil, Shitalkumar Patil, Geeta Kavathekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26590

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the melt sonocrystallization (MSC) technique to modify the processability properties along with solubility and drug release of anti-hyperlipidemic drug fenofibrate (FNO) as a BCS Class II drug candidate.

Study Design:  By 32 factorial design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in Department of Pharmaceutics, Ashokrao Mane College of Pharmacy, Peth-Vadagoan, Tal. Hatkanangale, Dist. Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India-416112 and the duration was two years.

Methodology: Melt sonocrystallized fenofibrate agglomerates (MSC-FNO) were prepared by probe ultrasonicator at varying sonication time (1, 2 and 3 min) and level of amplitude (60, 70 and 80%) by 32factorial design. Prepared MSC-FNO agglomerates were further evaluated for various parameters.

Results: Stable MSC-FNO agglomerates were prepared successfully with adequate percentage yield and drug content having porous surface and different crystal habits such as needles, plates, and some hollow tubes. MSC-FNO has shown improved micrometric properties consequently compressibility and flowability than FNO. Also MSC-FNO has shown increase in solubility and drug release may be due to formation of porous agglomerates witnessed in Scanning Electron Microscopic photographs. These results were well supported by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray Powder Diffraction which has indicated decrease in crystallinity of drug. As sonication time and amplitude increased properties of MSC-FNO were proportionally improved. Study of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that no chemical transition of FNO has occurred during MSC.

Conclusion: Thus MSC is a promising cost-effective technique that may give powder with improved required processability properties with better improvement in solubility and drug release, much needed for BCS class II drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Alumina-coated Carbon Nanotubes in Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution

Davoud Balarak, Yousef Mahdavi, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26937

The alumina-coated multi walled carbon nanotubes (Al2O3-coated MWCNTs) was used for removal of Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution in batch systems. The adsorption of TC occurred by studying the effects of adsorbent amount, TC concentration, contact time and temperature. The results suggested the adsorption capacity increased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using three widely applied isotherms: Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. The results revealed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo-first and second-order models and the intraparticle diffusion model. The regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics were more accurately represented by pseudo-second-order model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-chronic Oral Toxicity of Anthocleista vogelii (Cabbage Tree) Root Hydroethanolic Extract in Albino Rats

Rita M. Sunday, Olapade R. Ilesanmi, Efere M. Obuotor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27018

Aims: The toxicity profile of Anthocleista vogelii ethanolic root extract was investigated in Albino rats due to its use in Nigerian ethno-medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: The acute and sub-chronic toxicity of A. vogelii root was investigated in Albino rats by measuring daily food intake, water intake and body weight of animals. At the end of the experiment, haematological and biochemical parameters were measured.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences and in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and May, 2014.

Methodology: The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in acute toxicity studies and the plant extract was administered to albino rats upto 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic toxicity studies, 20 Albino rats (150-200 g) of both sexes were randomly divided into four groups of five animals each. The control group received distilled water (10 ml/kg), while the treatment groups were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract orally (p.o.) daily for twenty-eight days. Changes in body weight, food and water intake were measured daily. At the end of the subchronic toxicity studies, biochemical parameters [cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TRIG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL)], creatinine (CRT), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], haematological parameters (packed cell volume [PCV], haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell [RBC] and white blood cell [WBC]) and relative organ weight were determined while the liver and kidney tissues were examined histologically.

Results: The result showed that a single oral dose of the extract at 5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality (LD50 of the extract was ≥ 5000 mg/kg). However, in the sub-chronic toxicity studies, there was a significant P < 0.05 decrease in WBC, serum ALT, AST and CRT levels and an increase in PCV, RBC, water intake in week 3 and 4 when compared with the control. There was no pathological change in the liver and kidney tissues.

Conclusion: In conclusion from the present study, A. vogelii ethanolic root extract is safe when administered acutely (p.o) and it has no toxic effect when administered to Albino rats daily for twenty-eight days.

Open Access Review Article

Brazilian Myrtaceae Fruits: A Review of Anticancer Proprieties

Nayara Simas Frauches, Thuane Oliveira do Amaral, Caroline Bekman Diniz Largueza, Anderson Junger Teodoro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26782

The fruits belonging to Myrtaceae family are widely distributed throughout the Brazilian territory and are considered one of the most important families of the Brazilian flora, due to the high prevalence of species edible or used in traditional medicine. Medicinally, the fruits are reported to have antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitumoral activity. Among these properties a lot of research has established that the dietary intake of this fruit has a positive and profound impact on human health and in chronic diseases. Evidences suggest that, rich diets with colored fruits, particularly belonging to Myrtaceae family, are highly chemoprotective because of their bioactive compounds. This review showed that the bioactive compounds presents in Myrtaceae fruits have anticancer properties and exhibit their chemoprevention effects, elucidating the importance of consuming these fruits.