Open Access Short Communication

Strategies for the Microbiological Testing of Cosmetic Gels

Qasem M. Abu Shaqra, Aseel Q. Abu Shaqra, Mohammad Q. Abu Shaqra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25196

Background: Official methods for the microbiological testing of cosmetics are available; evidence is required for the suitability of procedure employed particularly while dealing with thick or viscous preparations such as gel formulations.

Aim: To illustrate the inherent problems that exist in conventional methodologies used for the microbiological testing of cosmetic gels and to recommend new strategies which could yield more consistent results.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at the quality control laboratories in Jordan Medical Solutions Manufacturing Company over a period of 4 months

Methodology: A carbomer based hair styling gel formulation and a cell suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 were prepared following standard procedures. Homogeneous dispersion of the prepared microbial challenge into the gel was achieved by two approaches. The first depended on inoculating the gel preparation prior to the addition of alkali while the second relied on breaking down the gel matrix by acidification of the original gel to pH 4 in order to allow the release of contaminants from the gel matrix. The traditional pour plate technique on 1 ml sample was used for microbial count.

Results: The percentage coefficient variation (PCV) in bacterial count recovered from the gel using the traditional approach was 30.58% whereas; when the proposed strategies were employed the PCV was 7.15%. The smaller the PCV, the better is the precision and repeatability of the assay.

Conclusion: Strategies presented herein are more suitable for the microbiological testing of cosmetic gels than the known routine methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Estimation of Four Sartans in Presence of Hydrochlorothiazide in Pharmaceutical Preparations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Panchumarthy Ravisankar, Kurra Manjusha, V. Laya Sri, B. Vijaya Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi, P. Srinivasa Babu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25354

A simple, reliable, reproducible, economical and rapid  isocratic RP-HPLC method  was developed for the simultaneously separated and quantification of four angiotensin II-receptor antagonists namely Telmisartan (TELM), Losartan (LOSA), Olmesartan (OLME) and Valsartan (VALS) along with thiazide diuretic mostly Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). All the above said drugs were separated by using Welchrom C18 column having internal diameter of 4.6 X 250 mm with 5 µm particle size as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting a mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH-3.3, 50:50 v/v). The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wave length of the UV detection was done at 238 nm. All the sartans were separated within 6 minutes. The calibration curves were linear (r2 = 0.9998) in all cases. The relative standard deviation was less than 2% and average recovery was above 99.95%. All four sartans were routinely assayed without interference. This method was statistically validated in different parameters like linearity, precision, specificity, accuracy, robustness and ruggedness. The optimized method proved to be accurate, specific and robust for the quality control of four angiotensin-II receptor blockers alone or in combination with HCTZ in bulk drug and tablet dosage forms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seven Keys Herbal Formulation on Plasma Concentrations of Liver Transaminases of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Eguavoen Collins, Ekpo Daniel Emmanuel, Ebeire Ekene Nwoke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25307

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of seven keys herbal formulation (Allium sativum, Xylopia aromatica, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Ficus carica, Nauclear latifolia, Starculia aurens and Combretum micranthum) on plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Twenty five (25) male albino rats of wistar strain weighing 120-160 g were used for the study. They were acclimatized to the laboratory environment for seven (7) days and were subsequently divided into five (5) groups of five rats each prior to experimentation. Group 1 and 2 served as the normal control (NC) and diabetic control (DC) respectively, and received placebo treatment with distilled water. All other groups were diabetic and treated with seven keys herbal formulation via oro-gastric intubation orally for 14 days. Group 3 served as the standard control treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of Glibenclamide. Groups 4 and 5 rats were treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of seven keys to power respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria, between January and February 2014.

Methodology: Diabetes was induced in rats via single intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate 100 mg/kg body weight, after which they were treated with standard drug and seven keys herbal formulation daily for 14 days. At the end of the fourteenth (14th) day period of treatment, the animals were subjected to overnight fast after which they were anesthetised in chloroform vapour, and blood sample were collected via cardiac puncture. The animals were subsequently euthanized in chloroform vapour, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity was assayed.

Results: The result showed that the administration of seven keys to power significantly (P<0.05) lowered AST and ALT concentrations in Group 5 (19.7±5.50 and 21.20±3.04 IU/L) when compared to Group 2 (33.5±1.91 and 44.46±2.55 IU/L) to near normal as seen in Group 1 (17.46±3.94 and 17.14±2.19 IU/L) respectively.

Conclusion: This shows that the liver functions of the rats were better preserved in a dose dependent manner as indicated in the group that received a high dose of the herbal formulation. Hence the drug formulation can be recommended for use in diabetic complications especially in cases of hepatotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sub-chronic Admnistration of Mascum Herbal Pride on Sperm Quality of Male Albino Rats

P. C. Okam, C. F. Okam, E. Obi, P. C. Unekwe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21505

The effect of Mascum Herbal Pride - a registered popular polyherbal medication composed of Hepo-createa pollen 20%, Xylopia aethiopica 20%, Medicago sativa 20%, Tetrapieura tetrapetra 20%, Urtica dioica 20% with indications to promote masculine hormone and male reproductive organ - on the sperm quality of male albino rats was studied. This was an investigation of the claim that the drug improves the male reproductive organ. Aqueous solution of the herbal product was given by oral gavage to three dose groups of five male rats each, namely 1250, 2500, 3750 mg/kg/body weight (b.w) for 90 days and were fed ad libitum with rat chow, the control group received only deionised water. Afterwards, the rats were bled-sacrificed. Epidydymal sperm was collected and analyzed using standard procedures. Sperm analyses involved sperm count, sperm morphology test and sperm motility test. At the doses administered, Mascum Herbal Pride affected the sperm number, morphology and motility of treated animals. Epididymal sperm count and motility were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared to the control mean sperm count of 172.5 x106, groups II, III and IV rats had mean sperm counts of 209 x 106, 258 x 106 and 293 x 106 respectively. Sperm motility scores were 70.0%, 78%, 83.5% and 95% for group I (control), groups II, III and IV respectively. Sperm morphology of the treated animals was not obviously affected when compared with the control. The present investigation showed that Mascum Herbal Pride modified the sperm characteristics in male albino rats by increasing the sperm count and motility. This proves that the claim that Mascum Herbal Pride improves sexual potency in man may be true. Further research in this regard is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic and Hepatoprotective Effects of Bupleurum flavum Flavonoids on Hepatocellular Carcinoma HEP-G2 Cells

Reneta Gevrenova, Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Silviya Ruseva, Nikolay Denkov, Spiro Konstantinov, Valentin Lozanov, Vanio Mitev

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25785

Aims: In this study, we aimed at investigating the possible cytotoxic and hepatoprotective effects of crude extract, flavonoid mixture and pure flavonoids isolated from the aerial parts of Bupleurum flavum Forsk. (Apiaceae) native to Bulgaria.

Methods: For the first time flavon C-glycoside vicenin-2 was isolated from B. flavum. Its structure was identified by LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Cytotoxic effects of vicenin-2, as well as the known flavonoid narcissin and B. flavum crude extract at concentrations ranging from 25 to 400 μg/ml were tested on cultured hepatocellular carcinoma HEP-G2 cells for 72 h by MTT assay. In vitro hepatoprotective activities of B. flavum flavonoid mixture (BFF), and rutin and narcissin isolated from BFF, were evaluated on epirubicin-induced damage.

Results: IC50 of 141.7 μM, 195.7 μM and 369.3 μg/ml was calculated for vicenin-2, narcissin and crude extract, respectively. Curcumin was used as positive control with IC50 17.90 μM. At a concentration 0.4 mg/ml of rutin, the strongest cytoprotective effect was verified, discerned by statistically significant (P = 0.05) increase in cell viability by 43.5%. However, incubation with narcissin had no significant hepatoprotective activity.

Conclusions: Vicenin-2 showed the most prominent cytotoxic effect at the highest tested concentration. Rutin in BFF had function for the observed protection against oxidative damage caused by the epirubicin. Therefore, B. flavum flavonoids are worth investigating for the potential development of agents against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization of Novel Furan Based Imidazolones and Their Boilogical Studies

Dakshayini Chandrashekarachar, M. Chaitramallu, N. D. Rekha, Devaraju Kesagudu, P. Ranjini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25645

Background: Heterocyclic derivatives are of various pharmacological activities. The five membered rings, imidazole moiety is present in wide range of naturally occurring molecules, for example furan is a five membered heterocyclic nucleus which contain oxygen atom as heteroatom having broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against microbes and fungal strains.

Results: We prepared a series of 3-(4-Acetyl-phenyl)-5-arylidene-2-furan-2-yl-3, 5-dihydro-imidazol-4-one with different aldehydes through Erlenmeyer reaction and condensation methods. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. All final compounds are screened for their antimicrobial activities done by Gram-negative bacteria Proteus, Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili and one yeast type fungi, C. albicans. Anti oxidant assay through DPPH radical scavenging, Nitric oxide assay.

Conclusion: Furan based compounds having greater importance in medicinal chemistry. This research work is an attempt to highlight some compounds shows good potency against microbial activity. Of all the compounds 3d appear to be a potent molecule. 3a, 3c killed all micro organism and there by showing their non-specificity in recognising the micro organism. 3e appears to be less potent molecule as, it is not acting on Gram-negative bacteria’s and B. subtilis (Gram-positive) bacteria and it’s killing Micrococcus with MIC of 92 µg. Among all 3f compound shows good potent against DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heat Stable Protease Inhibitors from Sesbania grandiflora and Terminalia catappa

H. K. I. Perera, B. D. S. Jayawardana, S. Rajapakse

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25841

Aims: Protease inhibitors play a vital role in the regulation of protease activity and display promising therapeutic effects against diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate protease inhibitory activities and their heat stabilities from parts of five medicinal plants.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka between March 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: Water extracts were prepared using fresh plant parts of Mangifera zeylanica (MZ) bark, Sesbania grandiflora (SG) bark, flower, leaves and seeds, Terminalia bellerica bark and seed, Terminalia catappa (TC) bark, fruit and leaves and Terminalia chebula bark and seed. Percentage inhibitory activities of the extracts against pepsin and trypsin were measured. Final concentrations of the extracts used for pepsin and trypsin inhibitory assays were 0.2 and 0.13% respectively. Remaining inhibitory activities were measured after heating the extract at 60, 80 and 100°C up to 1 h. All the experiments were conducted in triplicate for three times.

Results: Maximum pepsin inhibitory activity was detected in TC bark (98%) followed by SG bark (67%) and MZ bark (31%). Rest of the extracts showed 10 to 16% pepsin inhibition or no inhibition. Maximum trypsin inhibitory activity was detected in SG bark (95%) followed by TC bark (86%) and MZ bark (39%). Rest of the extracts showed 6 to 18% trypsin inhibition or no inhibition. Inhibitory activities of SG and TC barks remained when heated for 1 h at 60, 80 and 100°C. The maximum loss recorded was with the trypsin inhibitory activity (27% loss) when SG bark was heated at 100°C for 1 h.

Conclusion: S. grandiflora and T. catappa barks demonstrated strong protease inhibitory activities which were heat stable. Further studies are necessary to isolate, characterize and elucidate the structures of these protease inhibitors.