Open Access Original Research Article

Tendency of Self-Medication among Various Malaysian Ethnicities

Danish Muzaffar, Haydar M. Mahdey, Donni Sonjaya, Muhammad Sohail Zafar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21826

Aims: Self-medication has been observed in all kinds of societies regardless of region, religion, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. It is practiced by individuals as part of self-care for preventing or curing diseases. The main objective of this study is to assess the number of individuals involved in usage of over the counter drugs in Malaysia; as well as to assess if certain races in Malaysian population are more inclined towards the use of medication without prescription.

Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.

Methodology: A number of patients selected randomly from the outpatient department of SEGi University hospital, Malaysia participated in the study. Data was collected using a simple questionnaire. A total of 315 patients (166 male and 159 female) participated in the research and completed the designed questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed statistically using SPSS 20.0; appropriate statistical tests (Chi-Square and Fisher exact test) were applied. The P value (<0.01) was considered significant.

Results: In total, self-medication was practiced by 16.2% of participants. The trend was slightly higher in males (9.2%) than female participants (6.99%). Regarding ethnicity, the highest tendency was reported by patients of Indian origin. In Malaysian population, herbal medications were the most popular (66.66%), for the purpose of self-medication followed by allopathic drugs (22.22%). Considering the types of allopathic medications, oral analgesics remain the most popular drugs (60.56%) for self-medication among patient of all ethnicities.

Conclusion: The trend of self- medication is relatively less popular among Malaysians.  However, a few individuals reported of practicing self-medication occasionally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Analgesic and Neuropharmacological Activity of Different Extracts of Euphorbia hirta (Linn.) Leaf

Md. Razibul Habib, Mohammad Mustakim Billah, Kashfia Nawrin, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Md. Ibrahim Khalil, Md. Mominur Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21838

Aims: The present study was carried out to investigate the possible analgesic and neuropharmacological activities of the aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia hirta (Linn.) leaves.

Methods: The analgesic and neuropharmacological potential was studied at the dose of 400 mg/kg of body weight in mice. Analgesic potential of the extracts was evaluated using mice writhing method and formalin induced pain tests. In addition, neuropharmacological property of extracts was carried out by hole cross, open field and elevated plus maze tests.

Results: In writhing test, the aqueous extract significantly (89.51%) inhibited the peripheral nociception while in formalin test the ethyl acetate extract significantly (p>0.001) inhibited the licking time in both phases. The ethanolic extract exhibited convincing reduction of exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. Furthermore, an increase in the frequency and duration in the open arm of EPM displayed by all three extracts indicates the evidence of their anxiolytic activity.

Conclusion: These results may rationalize the scientific basis for use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of analgesia and anxiety related disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Shelf Life Studies of In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Gamma Irradiated Dried Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus Ex. Fries) Kummer in Ghana

N. K. Kortei, G. T. Odamtten, V. Appiah, M. Obodai, D. L. Narh Mensah, P. T. Akonor, M. Wiafe- Kwagyan, M. Ayim- Akonor, R. M. Adaboro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/16909

Aim: Antioxidant potential of dried and gamma irradiated mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) were assessed over a 12 months storage period.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory work was carried out at the Applied Radiation and Biological Centre, Radiological and Medical Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Accra. From 25th June 2013 to 25th June 2014.

Methodology: Mushrooms were stored in polythene and polypropylene packs and were irradiated with ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source at doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7  kGy/hr at room temperature of 28-30°C. The control was not irradiated. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity DPPH (2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) were examined at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage using aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts by Folin-Ciocalteu’s method.

Results: Total phenolic content ranged from 0.50±0.01- 10.96±1.7 mg/GAE, flavonoids ranged from 1.64±0.05- 8.90±0.6 mg/QE, DPPH radical scavenging activity also ranged from 6.85±0.10- 13.03±0.04% and IC50 values also ranged from 0.069 - 1.071 mg/ml. Both extracts and the treatment doses of mushrooms stored in polythene and polypropylene packs differed significantly (P<0.05). Good linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts.

Conclusion: Pleurotus ostreatus could be regarded as a promising candidate for natural mushroom sources of antioxidants with high value due to the presence of high phenolic compounds which contribute to high antioxidant activity. Employing low dose gamma radiation by the local food industry could enhance the hygienic quality, extend shelf-life, and preserve nutrients and anti-nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by Acanthus montanus Leaf Extracts

Akintayo L. Ogundajo, Mutiu I. Kazeem, Olamidisun A. Owoyele, Abdul Razak O. Ogunmoye, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2015-10-26
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21817

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the in-vitro anti-diabetic potentials of Acanthus montanus. This was done by assessing the inhibitory effect of both methanol and ethylacetate extracts of the plant on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

Study Design: The design included extraction of A. montanus leaves with methanol and ethanol and subsequent evaluation of the extracts for possible hypoglycemic effect.

Place and Duration of Study: The leaves of A. montanus were obtained from Badagry Area of Lagos, Nigeria in December 2012. The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr. S. O. Shosanya of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methodology: The powdered leaves were extracted with ethylacetate and methanol separately for 24 h. The resulting infusions were decanted, filtered and evaporated in a rotary evaporator. Dried extracts were weighed and dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to yield a stock solution from which lower concentrations were prepared. The inhibitory actions of both extracts against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were determined established procedures.

Results: The results showed that of the two extracts, methanol showed more inhibitory action than ethanol against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Lineweaver-Burk plot also depicted that the methanol extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a non-competitive and competitive manner respectively.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of extracts of A. montanus may be as a result of the inhibition of these enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase). This observation may be elicited by the presence of some phytochemicals present in the extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Properties of the Stem Bark Aqueous extract of Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) in Rats

Essama Mbida Désirée Sandrine, Mezui Christophe, Nkwengoua Zodengoumba Ernestine, Enow-Orock Enonchong George, Tan Paul Vernyuy, Nyasse Barthelemy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/20067

Aims: To evaluate the qualitative chemical composition of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Khaya grandifoliola and test the antiulcer actions on gastric lesions induced by HCl/Ethanol, HCl/Ethanol/Indomethacin, indomethacin, absolute ethanol, cold/restraint stress and pylorus ligation in experimental Wistar rats.

Study Design: Random allocation of male rats to groups of five rats each.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Animal Physiology Laboratory (Gastroenterology Unit), University of Yaoundé 1, between November 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: Gastric ulcers were produced in the glandular regions of rat stomachs using standard models of gastric ulcer induction. Ulcers produced were scored and mucus production and the severity of ulceration were compared between control groups and those given the plant extract or reference drugs. Oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT)) were measured in tissue samples of rats subjected to the cold/restraint stress method.

Results: Phenols, saponinins, flavonoids, proteins, acids, anthocyanins, tannins, alkaloids, ketones, sugars, coumarins, quinones, and amino acids were among the phytochemicals detected. The extract (250–500 mg/kg) inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers and significantly reduced the ulcer index in all models used (81.8% (p <0.001) with HCl/ethanol; 88.2% (p <0.001) with absolute ethanol; 100% (p <0.05) with HCl/ethanol/indomethacin; 72.6% with cold/restraint stress ulcers, and 69.6% (P<0.01) with pylorus ligation at the highest dose of 500 mg/kg. Gastric acidity significantly (p<0.01) dropped from 88 mEq/L in the controls to 34 mEq/L at the dose of 500 mg/kg.  In cold/restraint-induced stress, K. grandifoliola (500 mg/kg) lowered the increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) from 2.90 (control group) to 0.46 nmol/g tissue. The reduced levels of catalase were also significantly improved in rats treated with extract.

Conclusion: K. grandifoliola aqueous extract possesses gastric antisecretory potential. Its cytoprotective activity can be attributed to its ability to increase the antioxidant status and to enhance gastric mucosal defense possibly through the mediation of endogenous prostaglandins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolia on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Patrick Emeka Aba, Chidiebere Peace Okenwa-Ani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22122

Aim: The study investigated effects of combined methanol extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, oxidative stress markers and some haematological indices of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: Twenty five (25) albino wistar rats were assigned into 5 groups of 5 rats per group. Diabetes was induced in groups 2-5 by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (160 mg/kg) while group 1 rats served as normal control. Upon establishment of diabetes, group 2 rats were treated with 200 mg/kg of G. latifolium extract; group 3 rats with a combination of 100 mg/kg of G. latifolium and 100 mg/kg of V. amygdalina; group 4 rats with 200 mg/kg of V. amygdalina while group 5 rats were treated with 2 mg/kg glibenclamide. All treatments were daily through the oral route for 21 days. The FBG levels of the rats were assessed  at 2 h, 6 h and on days 7, 14 and 21 days post-treatment while blood for clinical chemistry [Catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA)] and haematological [Red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration)] analyses were collected on day 21 post-treatment.

Results: Results showed that the FBG level of the rats treated with combined extract decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 203.66±1.85 on day zero to 48.00±3.57 on day 21. The mean catalase activity and MDA levels of the rats that received the combined treatment (group 3 rats) were statistically comparable to that of glibenclamide-treated rats. The SOD activity, RBC count, PCV levels and Hb concentration of the rats in group 3 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the negative control group.

Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with 100 mg/kg each of methanol extracts of G. latifolium and V. amygdalina exhibited hypoglycaemic, anti-oxidant and anti-anaemic potentials.

Open Access Review Article

In-Process and Finished Products Quality Control Tests for Pharmaceutical Capsules According to Pharmacopoeias

Md. Sahab Uddin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Mamunur Rashid, Md. Asaduzzaman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22044

The quality of pharmaceutical products is essential to assure the maximum level of patient’s satisfaction. The most important criteria for quality of any drug in dosage form are its safety, potency, efficacy, stability, patient acceptability and regulatory compliance. Different parameters of quality control of pharmaceutical products can ensure the quality, bioavailability and optimal therapeutic activity. The maintenance of quality with continuous improvement in facilities is very important in pharmaceutical industries because it is directly related to healthcare system. The quality of a pharmaceutical capsule needs to be designed from the product development stage. In-process quality control (IPQC) tests are done with a view to remove error from every stage in production and maintain the quality of the final product with the compendial standards as specified in the pharmacopoeias. The quality of final products depends on in-process control (IPC) tests, because it helps to incorporate excellence within the products. The qualitative and quantitative parameters of pharmaceuticals products are checked by finished product quality controls (FPQC) tests. The purpose of this study is to provide concise information on the in-process and finished products quality control tests for pharmaceutical capsules as per different pharmacopoeias.