Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Study to Evaluate Daily Moderate Consumption of Ethanol on Oxidative Stress Markers of Diabetes Induced Wistar Strain Albino Rats

Seena Thadathil Pandarekandy, Sneha Girijavallabhan Kannamparathazhathethil, Rahmath Abdulrahiman, Ahammed Shahal, Surya Padinjareveedu Subrahmanyan, Sreekumaran Edakkot

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/21361

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) in ethanol treated non diabetic and diabetic rats.  

Methods: A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were grouped as control (n=6), diabetic control (n=6), ethanol treated control (n=6) and ethanol treated test (n=6) groups. Total duration of this experiment was 30 days. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin at 40 mg/kg dissolved in 0.1 M cold citrate buffer.  After the confirmation of diabetes in streptozotocin administered rat groups, on the 10th day of the experiment healthy control and diabetic control groups were orally treated with (1.0 mL/Kg body weight) drinking water while diabetic and non-diabetic ethanol control rat groups were orally treated with (1.0 mL/Kg body weight) 6.0% ethanol. On the 20th day, treatment was stopped and restarted on 25th day of the experiment.

Results: At the end of the experiment, the body weight of the healthy rat groups gradually increased (251±20.77g) when compared with diabetic groups (162±07.48 g for diabetic control and 176±24.78 g for ethanol treated diabetic groups). The ethanol treated diabetic groups showed a significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.01) than the diabetic control groups. The moderate amount of ethanol treated diabetic rats showed normal SOD (3.928 Unit mg/min) and decreased MDA (ethanol treated diabetic rats showed 1.0156 nmol/mg protein) than the diabetic rats (1.7638 nmol/mg protein).  

Conclusion: This study indicates that daily low consumption of alcohol may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and try to normalize the antioxidant status in diabetes rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Pilot Study to Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge and Quality of Water Used in Drug Reconstitution among Community Pharmacist in Palestine

Murad N. Abualhasan, Vivyan N. Hamad, Marah Abdulsamd, Taghreed Y. Robe, Munir Al Atrash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/20302

Background: Water is widely used as diluents because of its ability to dissolve, absorb, or suspend many different compounds including reconstituted drugs. The quality of water used is important as it may include contaminants that may represent hazards.

Methodology: In this pilot study we evaluated the problems associated with the improper use of water grade used in reconstitution of dry powdered drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was constructed to determine the rate of dispensing drug that needs reconstitution and to evaluate the knowledge of the pharmacists about the type of water that should be used and its specifications. Eight different tests were applied on the collected samples including microbiological an electrolytes tests.

Results: The results of this study showed a low response rate of the visited pharmacies. Only 47 out of 90 filled the questionnaire and provided water samples for testing. Testing results of the collected samples showed that (33%) of the samples had failed the microbiological test. Most of the samples passed the Sulphate and Calcium tests (85.1%, 74.4%) respectively. However, most of the samples failed the Chloride and Ammonia tests (93.6%, 85.1%) respectively. Moreover, (97.8%) of the tested samples failed the conductivity and pH specified test.

Conclusion: The results of this study show a low level of knowledge among the local community pharmacists regarding the proper type of water and the allowed mineral content   in water used for the reconstitution of powdered drugs. The quality tests results of the collected samples showed the unsuitability of the water used by the community pharmacist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Effects of Dietary Consumption of Raw and Fermented Seeds of African oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) in Rats

Ademola Clement Famurewa, Osaigbovo Daniel Ainabebholo, Chijioke Maxwell Onuoha, Uchenna Iyioku Ugah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/21456

Aim: Studies have reported the microbial role, biochemical changes and nutritional quality of fermented African oil bean seed, known as Ugba in the eastern Nigeria; however, assessment of possible health impact of this food is lacking in scientific literature. The study investigated the biochemical effects of raw and fermented seed of African oil bean incorporated in diet of albino rats on plasma lipids and liver function indices.

Methods: Rats were divided into control and experimental groups and fed with diet containing casein, raw seeds or fermented seeds of African oil beans for 21 consecutive days. Plasma obtained after the experimental period were used to analyze for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, total protein, albumin, conjugated and total bilirubin and liver enzymes.

Results: Fermented seed diet significantly reduced lipoprotein lipids, liver function proteins, aminotransferases, ALP, and bilirubin (p<0.05), while raw seed-incorporated diet significantly increased the parameters but not significantly for liver enzymes and conjugated bilirubin (p>0.05), as compared to control. 

Conclusion: Our data suggest beneficial biochemical effects of fermented seeds of African oil beans, as demonstrated by reduced lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and improved hepatic status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation, Formulation and Optimization Study of Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Resin as Rate Controlling Excipient in Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Theophylline

Muluken Nigatu, Nisha Mary Joseph, Anteneh Belete

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/20780

Aims: To investigate myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) resin as a rate controlling excipient in sustained release matrix tablets of theophylline, and to optimize formulation and process variables of the tablet preparation using central composite design.

Methodology: Wet granulation was employed for preparation of theophylline sustained release matrix tablets. Central composite design was used as an optimization tool having a total of 13 experimental runs with 5 central points. The myrrh resin amount (A) and compression force (B) were selected as independent variables. Cumulative % release of drug at 1 h, and 12 h and time to 50% drug release were taken as dependent variables.

Results: The moisture content and total ash values of myrrh resin were found to be 4.67±0.58% and   0.24±0.05%, respectively. The angle of repose for all formulated granules were less than 30°. The hardness of different formulations were found to be between 89.8±2.86 and 133.7±3.53 N while all tablets have passed the friability test (<1%). Analysis of dissolution data of the formulations indicated that the best fitting model was the first order kinetics whereas the mechanism of drug release pattern followed anomalous or non-fickian diffusion. An optimum region of 24.98%, 91.22% and 2.86 h was obtained for cumulative % release of drug at 1 h, 12 h, and time to 50% drug release, respectively when 17.5% myrrh resin amount and 13.9 KN compression force was used. For the optimized formulation, the experimental values were found to be in close agreement with the predicted values (relative errors ranged between -4.496 and 4.814%) confirming the predictability and validity of the model.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the myrrh resin from Commiphora myrrha can be used as a potential alternative rate controlling excipient for sustained release matrix tablet formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Oral Examination of Medical Undergraduates in Pharmacology – A Conceptual Study

Suneel I. Majagi, Yoo Soon Park

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19716

Aims: Oral examination has held an important place in medicine for centuries. Apart from some advantages, oral examinations are prone to many errors contributing towards threats to validity like Construct Under-representation and Construct Irrelevant Variance. Reliability, validity, feasibility and acceptability have to be considered when evaluating efficacy of any assessment protocol. Present conceptual study analyses the problems focusing on validity issues and other relevant challenges in present oral examination conducted for second year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) undergraduates in pharmacology in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum.

Study Design: Experimental, Randomised, Controlled study with Cross over design.               

Methodology: To overcome these problems a solution has been proposed in the form of Structured Oral Examination (SOE). Details of the process involved in actually conducting SOE and how it contributes towards validity is elaborated. Conceptual framework used in the present study consists of five sources of evidence for construct validity comprising content, response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. Research Question: Efficacy (in terms of reliability, validity, feasibility, acceptability and test scores) of SOE differs when compared to that of conventional oral examination. Second phase MBBS students will be randomly divided into two groups. In cross over design, each group will be exposed to both types of interventions: Conventional oral examination and SOE in the formative assessment. Attitude/feedback tests will be conducted for both groups and educators. Apart from the routine conventional oral examination, SOE which contain different stations with standardized scoring scales will be administered. In SOE each student has to face all the stations and answer all the questions.

Results and Conclusion: SOE may replace the conventional oral examinations in pharmacology. Practicability of the present conceptual study has to be confirmed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Preventive Effectiveness of Nigella sativa L. against Rat kidney Stones, Generated by Ethylene Glycol

Mohammad Zarei, Zeynab Rahmani, Javad Rezazadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/20418

Aims: The objective of   this research is to study the preventive effectiveness of Nigella sativa L. against rat kidney stones, generated by Ethylene Glycol.

Methodology: In this study, 40 Wistar rats were categorized randomly into four groups of ten. During the research, drinking water labeled group A is mixed with mineral water through utilization of positive control procedures. Into the drinking water labeled group B and other research groups, 1 percent Ethylene Glycol is added through the administration of negative control. In preventive group C, Nigella sativa is added from the first day of the research period and in the treatment of group D. After the 15th day of the research period, 750 mg/kg Nigella sativa powder is administered into the drinking water of rats per day. At the end of the research, kidney tissue samples of rats were stained with haematoxylin and Eosin through the utilization of an optical microscope. Furthermore, serum and urinary samples of rats were analyzed biochemically.  

Results: The results indicated that the number of Calcium Oxalate crystals in group B increased in comparison with that of group A. Biochemical analysis of serum and urinary samples indicated a significant increase in the number of Calcium Oxalate crystals of group B in comparison with group A. Furthermore, the analyses depict a unanimous decrease of crystals in all the research groups (except in group C) in comparison with group B.

Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that Nigella sativa L. does not have any preventive effectiveness against Calcium Oxalate accumulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Administration of Methanol Root Bark Extract of Cussonia arborea on Serum Biochemical Markers of Liver Damage and Histomorphology of Liver of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Patrick E. Aba, Isaac U. Asuzu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/21486

Aim: This study investigated the possible alterations in the serum liver damage markers and the hepatic histomorphology of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol root bark extract of Cussonia arborea at varying doses.

Methodology: A total of Seventy two (72) male albino wistar rats weighing between 100-105 g were assigned into six groups of 12 rats per group. Groups 1- 5 rats were made diabetic as by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 160 mg/kg and treated with 62.5, 125, 250 mg/kg bw of the extracts, 2 mg/kg bw Glibenclamide and 10 ml/kg DW respectively while the non diabetic group 6 rats received 10 ml/kg DW as serve as normal control rats. The treatment was daily through the oral route for 84 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP) and albumin were measured on days 42, 56 and 84 post treatment. At the end of the experiment, the rats were humanly sacrificed and their liver harvested for histomorphometric assessment. 

Results: Administration of 125 mg/kg bw of the extract, significantly (p<0.05) reduced the activities of AST, ALT but significantly (p<0.05) increased the levels of total protein, and equally ameliorated histopathological lesions in the liver when compared to the diabetic untreated group (negative control).

Conclusion: It was concluded that the methanol extract of C. arborea, at the dose of 125 mg/kg was strongly protective against liver damages occasioned by diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acrolein-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC) Cytotoxicity: Differential Effects of N-Acetylcysteine and Ebselen

Shirlette G. Milton, Omana P. Mathew, Kasturi Ranganna, Zivar Yousefipour, Mohammad Newaz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/21458

Aim: Acrolein, a vascular toxin implicated in atherogenesis, causes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) cytotoxicity. To understand the mechanism of acrolein-induced VSMC cytotoxicity and to assess contribution of acrolein-induced activation of cellular signaling to VSMC cytotoxicity, effects of n-acetylcysteine, ebselen, and inhibitors of ROS generating enzymes on acrolein-induced cytotoxicity and activation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPKs are investigated.

Place of the Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston Texas, USA.

Methodology: VSMC were preincubated or co-incubated in the presence or absence of test compounds and then exposed to acrolein to determine their effect on acrolein-induced:  Cytotoxicity by tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay; activation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPKs by western blotting; cellular glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorometric methods.

Results: (i) N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor abolishes acrolein-induced VSMC cytotoxicity and activation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPKs; (ii) Acrolein causes oxidative stress by depleting cellular glutathione and increasing ROS level that is insensitive to allopurinol, L-NAME, rotenone and apocynin; (iii) buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione biosynthesis inhibitor, accentuates acrolein-induced ROS generation and offers no protection against acrolein effects on VSMC in the absence of n-acetylcysteine but provides protection in the presence of n-acetylcysteine; and (iv) ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic, significantly protects VSMC from acrolein-induced cytotoxicity  and activation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, however, activation of MAPKs is insensitive to ebselen. 

Conclusion: Oxidative stress resulting from glutathione depletion mediates acrolein-induced cytotoxicity via modulation of redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways as illustrated by the differential effects of n-acetylcysteine and ebselen, specifically MAPKs activation. Considering the recent studies that indicate acrolein-induced activation of MAPKs is linked to direct modification of thioredoxin reductase1/thioredoxin1 (TrxR1/Trx1) by acrolein, being a GPX mimic, ebselen may be inefficient to prevent TrxR1/Trx1 inactivation, but by allowing glutathione synthesis, n-acetylcysteine may protect TrxR1/Trx1 and inhibit MAPKs activation.