Open Access Original Research Article

Patients’ Knowledge, Attitude and Compliance with Lifestyle Activities that can Potentially Interfere with the Outcome of Anti-hypertensive Medications

John David Ohieku, Jabir Said Suleiman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19182

Non-drug therapy as component of management often compliments drug therapy in order to achieve positive clinical outcomes. This patient-focussed research studied 225 hypertensive patients comprising 95 males and 130 females to assess the knowledge, attitude and education received and compliance with lifestyle modification. A cross-sectional descriptive study using questionnaire was used to investigate herbal intake, patients’ attitude and lifestyle activities like exercise, salt regulation, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, fat/cholesterol regulation, diets and sugar intake. The mean ages are 52.61±10.78 years for male and 47.12±11.37 years for female. Patients’ knowledge of normal BP was related to educational levels (odds values for good to poor knowledge: 0.07, 0.43, 3.17 and 3.95 respectively for uneducated, primary, secondary and tertiary education) and to the duration of diagnosis (odds values: 0.56, 0.87, 1.24, 1.57, 0.71 and 1.60 respectively for <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-20 years and >20 years). About 52% (n= 118) are aware that uncontrolled BP causes stroke but similar awareness of damages to eye, kidney and heart were low (being 34.4%, 34.7% and 42.2% respectively). Out of 28(12.4%) smokers, 9.8% (n=22) quitted when advised against the habit leaving 2.7% (n=6) as active smokers. Only 29.3% are aware of danger of excessive alcohol intake while 63.1% (n=142) never checked their lipid profiles. 30.7% (n=69) of patients are aware of risks of high cholesterol levels but two-third of patients (66.7%; n=150) never received advice to monitor such parameter. Majority (71.1%; n=160) have poor knowledge of effect of high sugar levels while only 37.3% (n=84) have been advised on regular check-up for this parameter. Most patients (60.9%, n=137) are aware of benefits of physical activity and received advice (57.8%, n=130) leading to 63% (n=136) of patient who complied to advise and 5.366 Mantel-Haenszel common odds estimate ratio for educated and uneducated relating regular exercisers and non-exercisers. About 82% (n=184) avoided excessive salt intake giving rise to 99.5% of patients who complied. However, 43 (19.1%) patients combined herbal preparation with their orthodox medicines. Patients seemed to have good knowledge of complication of uncontrolled BP to the brain, regulate salt intake and are compliant with advice on physical activities but lacked knowledge of danger of high cholesterol level. Patient-focused pharmaceutical care services with emphasis on patients’ education are required to optimize gains from drug therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Antimalarial Effect and Mechanism of Action of Methanolic Root Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa in Mice

D. I. Adefokun, E. O. Iwalewa, N. O. Omisore, E. Obuotor, I. J. Idowu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/13606

Aims: This study evaluated the antimalarial effect of methanolic root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa and its mechanism of action in Mice.

Study Design: One-factor two control groups experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, between October 2012 and May 2013.

Methodology: The crude methanolic root extract of the plant was tested for its in vivo anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei NK 65 (chloroquine resistant strain) using the three malaria models; suppressive, curative and prophylactic tests. Six different groups of albino mice of both sexes weighing 18 – 20 g (n=5 or 6) were randomly selected for the study. Group 1 was the control (normal saline, 10 ml/kg, p.o.), group 2 was the positive control (chloroquine, 10 mg/kg, p.o.), groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with methanolic root extract at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o., respectively, while group 6 was Nifedipine (15 mg/kg). The method of calcium colorimetry was also adopted for assaying the mechanism through which the extract acted.

Results: B. diffusa displayed antimalarial activity at all dose levels in all the three models, though optimum activity of the extract was displayed at the lowest dose (125 mg/kg) in suppressive and prophylactic models and at day 10 in curative model. The dose of 500 mg/kg had the highest activity at day 9 in curative model. The dose of 125 mg/kg again showed the best antipyretic effect in suppressive model at day 3 and this corresponds to its antimalarial activity. At 500 mg/kg, the extract lowered plasma calcium level better than the positive control (1.043 mmol/L compared with 1.35 mmol/L for nifedipine).

Conclusion: The methanolic root extract of B. diffusa possessed antimalarial and antipyretic effects which confirm its folkloric use in the treatment of malaria and fever.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antagonistic Activities of Microorganisms Associated with Indigenous Black Soap on Some Selected Skin Pathogens

K. A. Oyeniran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19798

Introduction: The indigenous black soap has been reported to possess antimicrobial activities. The aim of this research is to screen three different indigenous black soaps for extremophiles and then investigate their antagonistic effects on selected skin associated pathogens.

Methods: Microbiological analyses of three different indigenous black soap samples were investigated using serial dilution technique. Antagonistic activities of Bacillus vedderi, Bacillus faraginis, Chrysosporium spp, Aspergilus granulosus, Aspergilus flavus and Ramulispora javanicus microbial isolates from indigenous black soaps on clinical test pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, were investigated by co-culture method. Physicochemical analysis of the black soap was accomplished according to standard analytical methods. Analysis of variance (anova) was performed followed by Duncan multiple range post hoc tests, considered the value p =.05.

Results: Antagonism assay showed that B. vedderi and B. faraginis inhibited the growth of E. coli, and S. epidermidis with inhibition zones ranging from 15-34 mm. Fungal isolates do not show antagonism towards the test isolates. Physicochemical properties of the black soaps implied they provide an extreme environment as evident in their pH of 10.30, 10.82 and10.43 respectively.

Conclusion: Antimicrobial activities of indigenous black soap could be as a result of its bacterial flora. These extremophiles could be source of unique metabolites of clinical appraisal.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Formulation in Rats

N. A. Khan, M. Nasiruddin, I. A. Khan, A. Perveen, A. A. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/18427

Objective: To study the hepatoprotective activity of herbal formulation against CCl4 induced hepatoxicity in rats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty four Charles Foster albino rats of either sex, weighing 150-200 g were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. The animals of group I and II were administered distilled water in the dose of 1 mL/kg, orally, daily for 8 days. Group III and IV rats were administered Silymarin (100 mg/kg/day) and herbal formulation (150 mg/kg/day) orally, daily for 7 days respectively. On 7th day, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered in the dose of 2mL/kg as 1:1 mixture with liquid paraffin i.p. to induce hepatotoxicity in animals of group II, III and IV along with routine treatment. On 8th day all animals were sacrificed and blood as well as liver was collected for biochemical parameters and histological examination.

Results: There was significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (80.2±4.5 vs 26±3.1), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (68.7±5.6 vs 24.5±2.6), alkaline phosphatase (53.1±5.6 vs 9.4±2.8) and total bilirubin (2.64±0.09 vs 1.03±0.05) in CCl4 treated group (P< 0.01) as compared to control group. These parameters were not statistically different in Silymarin and herbal formulation treated groups (SGOT: 47.3±4.2 vs 48.6±3.2, SGPT: 44.2±4.3 vs 46.5±3.5, S.ALP: 23.1±7.4 vs 27.9±2.5 and total bilirubin: 1.68±0.02 vs 1.52±0.05 in Silymarin and herbal formulation group respectively) as compared to control group. But Silymarin and extract treated groups showed significant decrease in these parameters as compared to CCl4 treated group (P< 0.01). Histology of the liver sections confirmed that the extract prevented hepatic damage induced by CCl4.

Conclusion: The hydro-alcoholic extract of herbal formulation showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatoxicity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Cucumis sativus L.

Uzuazokaro Mark-Maria Agatemor, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo, Chioma Assumpta Anosike

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19700

Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and acute toxicity of Cucumis sativus L.

Study Design:  Animal model assays of anti-inflammatory.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, 410001, Nigeria between April 2014 and November 2014.

Methodology: To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity, test substances that included whole Cucumis sativus L. homogenate were administered to four groups of Wistar rats. A control group received normal saline; a reference group received a standard anti-inflammatory drug, DiclofenacÒ while 2 test groups received whole Cucumis sativus L. fruit homogenate, respectively. Inflammation of the right hind paw of rats was induced by subplantar injection of 0.1 ml of 2% agar-agar suspension and increases in paw volumes, which relate to anti-inflammation, were measured using the volume displacement method. To evaluate the acute toxicity of Cucumis sativus L. fruit homogenate, 20 albino mice grouped into five groups of four mice each with animals were used. Animals in different groups were orally administered with different amount of the whole fruit homogenate. The animals were monitored for dullness, nervousness, uncoordinated movement, and death within 24 hours after administration.

Results: Paw volume progressive decreased within 5.5 hours in test groups after administration of Cucumis sativus L. The administered Cucumis sativus L did not induce adverse effects on the mice within the concentration range of 0.5 mL/kg body weight to 5 mL/kg body weight test animals.

Conclusion: The whole fruit homogenate of Cucumis sativus L. had anti-inflammatory activity and no dose-dependent side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Questionnaire Survey for Prevalence of Medication Use in Dehradun District of Uttarakhand, India

Anuj Nautiyal, N. V. Satheesh Madhav, Samir Bhargava, Abhijeet Ojha, Harish Chandra, Rajeev Kumar Sharma, Sugandha Varshney, Kirti Singh, Deepika Raina, Vishakha Jaiswal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/18710

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 200 medical store (drug-retailer working in authorized drug stores) for investigating the prevalence of use of medication in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. Study revealed that, 32.6% patients could show the prescription from a qualified doctor or a dentist. Less than ten percent prescriptions came from dentists. Ninety-two (57.14%) drug retailers answered that a number of patient insisted them to advice on medications for their diseased conditions. Ayurvedic physicians were prescribing allopathic drugs, as reported by ninety-eight (60.8%) drug retailers. Qualified physicians were prescribing herbal drugs, as reported by fourteen (8.6%) drug retailers. Antibiotics were the highest sold 62% followed by tonics 26%, antacids 8% and other drugs 4%. Only eighteen (11.1%) heard about Essential Drugs and twenty eight (17.31%) knew the generic name of some medications. Prescriptions which are not easily readable were reported by fourteen (30.43%) drug retailers. The prices of drugs are increasing was answered by 161(100%) drug retailers. These results concluded that the drug controlling body of the government should take steps to improve the medication use in the community and ensure proper dispensing of medications with legal prescription by only registered pharmacist.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Potential of Three Crude Extracts of Tridax procumbens Leaves

J. J. Oloche, P. Enokela, A. Nongo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/20175

Aims: The decreasing sensitivity of microbial isolates to most available standard antimicrobial agents currently in use necessitates the search for novel and clinically effective ones especially from plant sources. In this research, effort was made to assay in vitro antimicrobial potential of three crude extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves.

Methodology: Disc diffusion method was used for the assay against six bacteria isolates: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The study was carried out in three replicates for a period of 72 hrs.

Results: The results showed that highest sensitivity was observed with chloroform extract against Streptococcus pyogenes (34.00±0.58 mm), Escherichia coli (28.00±1.15 mm) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (28.00±0.58 mm). Ethanol extract exhibited moderate activity, while little antibacterial activity was seen with the aqueous extract. There was no inhibition of bacterial growth at all in the negative control (Distilled water). The sensitivity of chloroform extract of Tridax procumbens at 80µg/ml was higher but not significantly different (P>0.05) from ciprofloxacin (50µg/ml) against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiela pneumoniae.

Conclusion: Tridax procumbens appear to be a source of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.