Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Analgesic Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clitoria ternatea Linn

Shital S. Chavan, Ravindra S. Jadhav, Deepak Kharat, Someshwar D. Mankar, R. K. Godge

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 255-260
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/13593

Clitoria ternatea L. is a member of the family Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘Aparajita’ or Girikarnika. It is a perennial climber widely used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine for treating a wide variety of ailments. Nowadays available drugs for the management of pains, fever, and inflammation like conditions are having many adverse effects; hence there is need for the drugs from other safer sources which will be highly safer having little or no side effects. For this purpose, Clitoria ternatea Linn leaves (Fabaceae) were screened for its phyto and pharmacological especially analgesic properties using hotplate and tail immersion method with mice. The analgesic study of Clitoria ternatea Linn leaves showed that the petroleum ether extract of the leaves have significant activity compared to pentazocin which is used as a standard. Generally Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins are responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in many medicinal plants; hence phytoconstituents from plant leaves are also studied. These results may explain the use of the plant for the management of pains and its related ailments in the region where it is commonly found.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biocompatible and Biodegradable Chitosan / Clay Nanocomposites as New Carriers for Theophylline Controlled Release

Catalina Natalia Cheaburu-Yilmaz, Raluca Petronela Dumitriu, Manuela-Tatiana Nistor, Catalina Lupusoru, Marcel Ionel Popa, Lenuta Profire, Clara Silvestre, Cornelia Vasile

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-254
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16525

Aims: Carrier polymeric materials based on chitosan and chitosan / montmorillonite crosslinked with glutaraldehyde were prepared and studied for their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and biodegradability aiming their application in drug delivery.
Study Design: Polymeric materials based on chitosan and chitosan/ montmorillonite crosslinked with glutaraldehyde were prepared as new carriers for theophylline release.
Methodology: The matrices of chitosan / glutaraldehyde and chitosan / montmorillonite / glutaraldehyde were prepared, purified and lyophilized to obtain porous materials. The biocompatibility and toxicity of the samples were tested by means of specific tests determining the life rate of white Swiss mice after intraperitoneal injection of the polymeric matrices prepared as suspensions; hemocompatibility was evaluated by hemolysis test with human blood and cell viability tests were performed by chemiluminescence assay. The matrices loaded and unloaded with theophylline were characterized in terms of structural changes, thermal stability, chemical and enzymatic degradation, distribution of the active substance, etc. In order to demonstrate the drug carrier ability of these matrices, theophylline release studies were performed both by in vitro and in vivo tests.
Results: The in vivo release profiles showed the sustained release of theophylline proved by the drug presence recorded up to 50 h from administration time.
Conclusion: An improvement of the half-release time (t1/2) from 12 to 14 hours was obtained in vivo in the case of the matrix containing montmorillonite, indicating the possibility of reduced dosing frequency, but with a prolonged action time, which is beneficial to the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Membrane Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Gmelina arborea Seed Extracts and Their Fatty Acid Composition

Deepak Kumar, Ashwani Sanghi, Raju Chandra, Shefali Arora, Ashwani Kumar Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 261-268
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16043

Aims: In the present study different extracts of seeds of Gmelina arborea were prepared and evaluated their membrane stabilizing and antioxidant effects. The Fatty acid composition was also estimated.
Study Design: Fatty acid analysis by GCMS and evaluation of membrane stabilizing and antioxidant activity by hypotonic solution induced hemolysis and DPPH method respectively.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun, India, between October 2013 to September 2014.
Methodology: All extract were tested for presence of phytoconstituents i.e., alkaloid, carbohydrate, sterols, proteins, amino acids, saponin, and phenolic compounds in different extracts. Membrane Stabilizing effect was studied by hypotonic solution induced hemolysis of erythrocyte. Antioxidant activity was studied by DPPH method at a different concentration 50 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml. GCMS analysis was done for petroleum ether extract with the help of Perkin Elmer Clarus-500 model coupled with CLARUS-500 Mass spectrometer.
Results: Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, sterols, proteins, amino acids, saponin, and phenolic compounds in different extracts. Methanol extract was the richest extract for tested phytoconstituents. Different fatty acids were present in petroleum ether extract which was analyzed by GCMS. Maximum membrane stabilizing activity of seeds of Gmelina arborea showed in acetone (45.39±0.84) and methanol (44.12±0.72) extracts at a concentration of 2000 µg/ml in comparison to standard drug. From antioxidant studies, methanol extract showed maximum antioxidant activity (91.99±0.46) at a concentration of 500 µg/ml than other extract in comparison to standard drug ascorbic acid.
Conclusion: From above studies it could be concluded that methanol and acetone extract showed maximum membrane stabilizing and antioxidant activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Quranic Plants’ Mixture: A New Pharmaceutical Product

Eman A. Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 269-277
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15934

Aims: This work was carried out to determine anti-inflammatory effects of this new pharmaceutical product (Quranic Plants’ Mixture) and also to study side effects of this product on many important organs of the body of investigated animals.
Place and Duration of the Study: In vivo studies were carried out in the Animal House of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt (during 21-22 July 2014). Histological studies of investigated animals were done in the Pathology Department Lab, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.
Study Design: Three different doses of this new pharmaceutical product were tested in this study regarding their anti-inflammatory effects.
Methodology: In vivo studies of anti-inflammatory effects of feeding adult female albino rats under investigation with three different doses (2, 4 and 8 g/kg ) of this new pharmaceutical product were carried out after 24 hours of inducing inflammation by injecting investigated animals with carrageen. Additionally, weights of many important organs (Brain, Kidney, Liver, Heart, Lung, Spleen, Stomach and Colon) of the body of investigated animals were measured, along with investigations of their histological structures, to examine any bad side effects of this new pharmaceutical product on investigated animals.
Results: In vivo studies of anti-inflammatory effects of feeding adult female albino rats under investigation with three different doses (2, 4 and 8 g/kg ) of this new pharmaceutical product showed that, both edema sizes and weights were decreased in case of feeding these rats with all investigated doses of Quranic plants’ mixture. In this regard the highest anti-inflammatory effect was obtained by feeding animals with 8 g/kg of Quranic plants’ mixture based on edema weight estimation; however, 2 g/kg of Quranic plants’ mixture was found to be the best effective dose by estimating edema sizes of inflammated rats. Weights’ estimation and histological investigations of many important organs of the body of investigated animals revealed that, all investigated doses (2, 4 and 8 g/kg ) of Quranic plants’ mixture have not any bad side effects on many important organs of all examined rats.
Conclusion: These promising results of anti-inflammatory effects of Quranic plants’ mixture will add a new safe anti-inflammatory agent in the world of pharmaceutical products; also these results will lead us to more biological and chemical investigations of this new, cheap and safe pharmaceutical natural product of plant origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Co-trimoxazole Induced Hyperbilirubinemia in Rats

Nabin Wagle, Hari Prasad Sapkota, Nim Bahadur Dangi, B. Sreedhar Naik, Y. Balakrishna, S. Nagarjuna, Y. Padmanabha Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-283
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14719

Aims: To evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid on co-trimoxazole induced hyperbilirubinemia.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (RIPER), between July 8, 2014 to July 23, 2014.
Methodology: Rats were divided into three groups of six each, Control group were treated with vehicle, Negative control group were treated with co-trimoxazole (36 mg/kg of body weight) and Test group were treated with ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg) and co-trimoxazole (36 mg/kg of body weight). All the groups were treated once daily for a period of 15 days. After one hour of oral administration, blood were collected by retro-orbital method on 1st, 5th, 10th, and 15th days and bilirubin levels were estimated by using semi-auto analyser.
Results: Animals treated with co-trimoxazole have none significantly increased on bilirubin level at day 1stbut bilirubin levels were significantly increased on 5th and 15th days of test (P<.001) when compared to normal group.
However, Animals treated with ascorbic acid + co-trimoxazole have none significantly decreased on bilirubin level on day 1st but from day 5th today 15th bilirubin levels were significantly decreased (P<.001), when compared to negative control group.
Conclusion: On administration of ascorbic acid to rats, the hyperbilirubinemia which was induced by Co-trimoxazole decreases. So, the combination therapy of co-trimoxazole and ascorbic acid has the beneficial effect over hyperbilirubinemia caused by co-trimoxazole.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Potency of Ethnobotanical Plants as Alternative Remedies to Curtail Nosocomial Infections: A Case Study of Five Native Plants in Kenya

Mutuku Chrispus Ngule, MueniHellen Ndiku

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 284-292
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/13684

Aim: The current study was done to investigate the antibacterial potentiality of five ethnobotanical plants used in Kenya as remedies in the treatment against selected nosocomial infectious bacteria.
Materials: The plant samples were collected in the months of June and July. The samples were identified in the Department of Biological Sciences. Voucher specimens were prepared and stored in the department of biological sciences herbarium.
Methodology: The plant leaves samples were dried, powdered and extracted using methanol and water in the ratio 9:1. The samples were vacuum filtered using Whatman no.1 filter paper. The solvents were removed using a rotar vapor with a water bath at 40ºC. The bioassays were done using well diffusion method followed by incubation at 37ºC for 24hrs and then the zones of inhibition diameters measured with the aid of a ruler in millimeters (mm).
Results: From the results Tetradenia riparia had the best zones of inhibition as compared to all of the other four plants used in the study. Tetradenia riparia highly inhibited Staphylococcus epidermidis 27.67±0.333 mm, followed by Bacillus cereus 18.00±0.577 mm and Escherichia coli with an inhibition zone of 13.33±0.333 mm. Penicillin which was used as the positive control inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) did not inhibit the growth any of the microorganisms.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this research may be an indication that the five plants can be good sources for antiseptic solutions and new drugs in the fight against hospital acquired infections. However, further research needs to be done to isolate the pure compounds from the plants, study their structural elucidation and their mode of action. Formulations of solutions with aseptic activity need to be done especially on Tetradenia riparia which demonstrated the highest activity against the microorganisms.

Open Access Review Article

Natural Sources of Taxol

Tasiu Isah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 214-227
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16293

Taxol® is the most successful anticancer agent developed in the last 50 years. The alkaloid taxol and other taxoids were at first isolated from T. brevifolia. Because of the small yield that threatened existence of the natural population due to exploitation for taxol, a search for alternative sources were made among Taxus species. As a result, isolation of taxol and other taxanes were achieved in all Taxus species. The success encouraged exploration of other members of Taxaceae, the gymnosperms, and angiosperms. In order to address the supply crisis, microbial endophytes sources in known taxol and non-taxol-producing plants were further explored with resultant successes. Production of taxol in endophytes is yet to translate into industrial production. Application of biotechnology through metabolic engineering is hoped to address the supply of taxol to meet demand for the production of the anticancer drug, considering the increasing prevalence of cancer around the world.