Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Giant African Snail (Achachatina maginata) Haemolymph in CCl4- Induced Hepatotoxixity in Albino Rats

Bashir Lawal, Oluwatosin K. Shittu, Prince C. Ossai, Asmau N. Abubakar, Aisha M. Ibrahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-154
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15887

Objective: To evaluate the acute toxicity, in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Giant African Snail (Achachatina maginata) haemolymph against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in albino rats.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. It was carried out between September and December, 2014.
Methods: Antioxidant activity of the haemolymph was assayed by DPPH radical scavenging, reducing properties, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the haemolymph. In addition, the phenol and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The safety of the extract was also investigated by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The hepatoprotective activities of the haemolymph were compared with a known hepatoprotective drug, silymarin. For this purpose, twenty adult albino rats were assigned into 5 groups. Group 1 and 2 serves as normal control and CCL4 control respectively. Group 3-5 were treated with 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg haemolymph and 100 mg/kg Silymarin respectively.
Results: The lethal dose (LD50) of haemolymph determined was greater than 5000 mg /kg in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 9.30±0.11 mg/g GAE and 15.20±0.59 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The haemolymph exhibited concentration dependent in vitro antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 579.66±2.69 μg/mL in the DPPH radical scavenging activity and 310.75±3.12 μg/mL in lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity but shows low reducing properties compare to ascorbic acid. The liver damage was evidenced by the elevated levels of serum and liver ALT, ALP, serum AST, hepatic thio-barbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and reduced serum catalase in CCl4-hepatotoxic rats. Administration of haemolymph (200/400 mg/kg) and standard control drug silymarin (100 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced CCL4- induced elevations of the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and TBARS while the reduced concentration of catalase due to CCL4 was reversed. However, the SOD activities was significantly (P<0.05) higher in CCL4 treated group compare to the control group.
Conclusion: The present study proved the antioxidant activity of Giant African Snail (Achachatina maginata) haemolymph can be used as accessible source of natural antioxidants with potential application to reduce oxidative stress induced liver damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Derivatisation of Cashew Gum by Esterification Using Citric Acid and Glycerol

A. Abdulsamad, A. R. Oyi, A. B. Isah, I. Odidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 155-165
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16022

Citric acid and glycerol were used to derivatise cashew gum via cross-linking. A dispersion of the purified gum, the acid, glycerol and sodium dihydrogen phosphate was made in deionised water and concentrated by heating at 40ºC for 18 h. The resulting solid mass was heated at 140ºC/170ºC for 30 min for the cross-linking to take place. The cross-linking was demonstrated using DSC, FT-IR and NMR spectral data and the esterified derivative (tagged CrosCCG) was characterized by determination of the solubility, water content, swelling and water holding capacity, moisture sorption and desorption, particle flow properties The results obtained indicated that the cross-linked product differed from the parent gum and from cashew gum cross-linked using citric acid alone, by displaying greater swelling ratios, water sorption and water holding capacities. This product may find use as swellable device in controlling drug release or as disintegrant in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adverse Drug Reactions of Anti-hypertensives in Medicine Department of A Tertiary Care Hospital: A Twelve Month Observation

Sagar B Bhagat, Abhijeet D Joshi, Ketaki C Patil, Rohini S Gambre, Sadiq B Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 166-173
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15520

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity around the globe. Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. As more and more anti-hypertensive drugs are coming in market it is necessary to keep a check on its various unknown ADRs due to wide ethnic variability of the population.
Methods: An observational, cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with department of Medicine, at Grant Govt. Medical College & Sir JJ Group of Hospital, Mumbai among the hypertensive patients over a period of 12 months.
Results: A total of 853 hypertensive patients were observed in this study. Among them total of 166 ADRs were observed. Beta Blockers (BB) were associated with maximum number of ADRs. 48 (30%) ADRs were observed in age group of 51-60 years.114 (71.25%) ADRs were type A while 46 (28.75%) were type B. Severity assessment showed 102(63.75%) ADRs to be moderate. Causality assessment showed 117 (73.12%) ADRs in the probable category. Bronchospasm, pedal edema, cough, and hypotension were the most common ADR observed due to BB, calcium channel blockers, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Angiotensin receptor blockers, respectively. The maximum number of ADRs (16.25%) was reported for Atenolol. One hundred and five (65.6%) ADRs resolved without any interventions and thirteen ADRs resolved with interventions.
Conclusion: Among the antihypertensive drug, maximum ADRs (30%) were reported for beta blockers. Most ADRs of antihypertensive drugs were moderate in severity and the causality analysis revealed them as ‘probable’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Nutritional Composition Analysis of Murraya koenigii Linn Leaves

A. J. Uraku, V. O. Nwankwo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-180
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15595

Vegetable is an indispensable constituent of human diet that supplies the body with minerals, vitamins and certain hormone precursors, in addition to protein and energy. The phytochemical and proximate analyses of Murraya koenigii Linn leaves were carried out according to methods of AOAC. The plant leaves were assayed for contents of vitamins and mineral elements using spectrophotometric methods. The results of phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn contained high quantities of flavonoids (600.25±0.41), alkaloids (343.34±0.25) and tannins (206.05±7.50) with low levels of saponins (0.03±0.01) and carotenoids (0.10±0.05) all in mg/100 g). The results of proximate analysis showed a low crude fibre content of 1.78±0.51% and carbohydrate content of 1.29±0.01% but a relatively high content of moisture 84.60±1.20%, fats and oils 5.13±0.95%, proteins 3.60±1.29% and ash 3.60±0%. The results of vitamin compositions indicated high levels of vitamin C (815.00±0.81), B3 (215.01±1.67), B2 (25.68±4.86) and B1 (13.34±0.59) with low content of vitamins E (1.08±0.12) and A (2.98±0.26) all in mg/100 g. The mineral elements constituents showed presence of Fe (9.44±0.07), Ca (3.77±0.33), Na (46.00±2.00), K (3.13±0.02), Mn (3.38±), Ni (0.12±0.01), Cu (2.40±0.07) and Co (0.08±0.01) all in mg/100 g. Thus, these mineral concentrations are all below the tolerable levels except Zn (80.67±0.78 mg/100 g) which is 40 mg/day. Despite that this plant contained numerious chemical contituents that have therapeutic effects in the body as well as those that are essential for normal functioning of the body, this research suggest additional phytochemical analysis in way to identify which alkaloids are specifically present in M. Koenigii Linn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validated UV Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Olanzapine in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Formulations and Preformulation Studies

Emil Joseph, Garima Balwani, Vibhu Nagpal, Satish Reddi, Ranendra Narayan Saha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 181-190
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16361

Aims: To develop and validate two accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of widely prescribed anti psychotic drug-Olanzapine in bulk, formulations and preformulation studies.
Methodology: Two different solvent systems optimized for the analysis (100 mM hydrochloric acid with pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer saline with pH 7.4), were based on various criteria such as applicability of the method, sensitivity, ease of sample preparation, cost effectiveness, stability of drug in investigating medium, and reproducibility. Olanzapine was estimated at 258 nm in 100 mM hydrochloric acid and 252 nm in phosphate buffer saline.
Results: The linear regression equations obtained by applying least square regression analysis for Olanzapine were found to be: Absorbance = 0.0697 × concentration in µgml–1+ 0.008; r2= 0.9999) in 100 mM hydrochloric acid; absorbance = 0.0571 × concentration in µgml–1- 0.0052; r2 = 0.9998) in the phosphate buffer saline. Sandell’s sensitivity was found to be about 0.0144 µgcm−1 for hydrochloric acid and 0.0175 µgcm−1 for phosphate buffer saline. The apparent molar absorptivity was calculated to be 2.17x104mol−1cm−1 and 1.78x10mol−1cm−1 in hydrochloric acid and phosphate buffer saline respectively.
Conclusion: Two spectrophometric methods for the analysis of Olanzapine have been developed successfully and validated as per ICH guidelines. Developed methods were successfully applied for the determination of Olanzapine in commercial tablets of varying strengths and various preformulation parameters of the drug such as dissociation constant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of the Traditional Medical Practitioners of North-Western Nigeria on Malaria Treatment and the Potential Antiplasmodial Properties of Plumeria rubra Stem-Bark

Umar Adam Katsayal, Mujitaba Suleiman Abubakar, Abubakar Ahmed, Ezzeddeen Mukhtar Abdurahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-202
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16072

Aims: The apparent lack of scientific proof of efficacies claimed by the traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) (locally known as Magori/’Yan-ganye, in Hausa language) of North-Western Nigeria with respect to malaria and the many drawbacks of the current antimalarial drugs stimulated this study. The study was carried out to evaluate the perception of the TMPs on the causes, diagnosis and treatment of malaria and evaluate the potential antiplasmodial properties (in-vivo in Albino mice) of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocynaceae) commonly used in traditional treatment of malaria in North-Western Nigeria. The study was aimed at providing scientific basis for use of traditional health knowledge and use of medicinal plant resources in the treatment of malaria.
Study Design: Using an ethno-medical survey, information was obtained from the TMPs relating to identification of plants, their medicinal uses and the mode of preparations of remedies on traditional treatment of malaria.
Place and Duration of Study: The ethno-medicinal survey was carried out at the premises of TMPs from December, 2005 to May, 2008. The laboratory work was carried out at the Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria from July, 2008 to February, 2010.
Methodology: An ethno-medical survey was conducted in twenty Local Government Areas across four States (Kaduna, Kano, Katsina and Jigawa) in North-Western Nigeria. The communities covered in the survey were selected on the basis of their reputation for being homes to a number of TMPs. The plant used was selected on the basis of ethno-medical information obtained from the TMPs using an exclusion criterion based on claim for activity score. The preferable solvent used by the local people was found to be mostly water and/or alcohol, the plant material was therefore extracted by maceration technique using 70% v/v aqueous-ethanol. The metabolites profiles of the extracts were determined using thin layer chromatographic (TLC) technique on commercially prepared silica gel pre-coated flexible plates.
Results: The TMPs were able to define, diagnose and presumably treat malaria using the indigenous medicines. Median lethal dose (LD50) was established to be greater than 5 gkg‾1 for the aqueous extract and 3.8 gkg‾1 for the chloroform extract orally in mice respectively. Antiplasmodial evaluation of the two extracts revealed that the two extracts exhibited dose-dependent in-vivo suppressive, curative and prophylactive properties on the development of parasitaemia in Albino mice using a chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK-65). TLC profile fingerprints of the aqueous extract revealed three distinct spots with Rf values of 0.23, 0.39 and 0.75 whereas that the chloroform extract revealed three distinct spots with Rf values of 0.33, 0.42 and 0.55 when it was developed in ethyl acetate: ethanol: water: ammonia (65:25:9:1).
Conclusion: These results represented the first conducted evaluation of the perception of TMPs of North-Western Nigeria on the causes, diagnosis and treatment of malaria, antiplasmodial and thin layer chromatographic profile fingerprinting studies on Plumeria rubra bark found in North-Western Nigeria. The findings are therefore expected to provide the necessary scientific basis for rational use of traditional health knowledge and use of medicinal plant resources of North-Western Nigeria in the treatment of malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Studies on Some Medicinal Plants in Girei, Adamawa State of Nigeria

M. L. Idris, I. I. Nkafamiya, A. Akinterinwa, J. I. Japari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-213
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16205

Ten medicinal plants’ parts (roots, stembarks, and leaves) were studied to assert their suitability for use in pharmaceutical industries as raw materials. The presence (qualitative analysis), concentration (quantitative analysis) and antimicrobial activities of such phytochemicals as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steriods, phlobatannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides (CGs) were carried out on the extracts from the plants’ leaves, stembarks and roots. Result indicates an interesting presence of all the phytochemicals in the medicinal plants (i.e. in either of the studied parts), although there are slight variation in the composition of the plant parts. Averagely, tannins shows the highest amount in all the plant studied, followed by alkaloids, while steriods, terpenoids, phlobatannins and cardacglycosides which together constitutes the general phenol shows the least amount. Antimicrobial test reveals the activities of the phytochemicals in the different plant parts, and these has justified the use of the plants in the synthesis of bioactive drugs and hence their medicinal significance for bioprospective and pharmaceutical productions.