Open Access Original Research Article

Dissolution Profile of Dosage forms of ACT Anti-Malarial Drugs from North-Central Part of Nigeria

A. Samali, M. I. Mohammed, M. B. Ibrahim, C. C. Mbah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14948

Aims/Objective: To examine the rate and percentage release of the active constituents of brands of ACT anti-malarial drugs using UV-Visible Spectrophotometric method to ascertain its applicability in quality control of ACTs for effective treatment.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried-out on the North-central part of Nigeria between the March, 2013 and July 2013.
Methodology: In vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets dosage form was evaluated one after the other. The methods comprised of dissolution medium of 900 ml distilled water (for artemether) and 1000 ml of 0.1 M HCl (for lumefantrine) per vessel with the paddle rotating at 100 rpm for 60 minutes (artemether) and 45 minutes (lumefantrine) at the temperature of 36°C to 37°C.The dissolved samples were analyzed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 216 nm (artemether) and 302 nm (lumefantrine) after method validation for accuracy, precision, linearity and specificity.
Results: The outcome of the study indicated the best release time for artemether from 2-10 minutes and 10 - 30 minutes for lumefantrine with 88% of the samples complied with USP specified requirement for dissolution test. The statistical P-value (P < 0.05) of mean (0.1007) and variance (0.7533) for artemether released were non-significant, while for lumefantrine, mean (0.0130) and variance (0.0446) were significant among the samples.
Conclusion: This method indicated that, UV-Visible spectrophotometric method could be used as non-simultaneous in vitro dissolution test for artemether and lumefantrine in tablet dosage combination forms. The method is simple, fast and cost-effective therefore it can be adopted for continual periodic monitoring of drug quality in order to sustain survival of quality drugs for malaria treatment among the populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating some Selected Heavy Metals and Micronutrients Levels in Herbal Preparation Marketed in Nigeria: A Pilot Study

A. A. Onyeaghala, I. O. Omotosho, A. R. Shivashankara

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15458

Background: The use of herbal remedies has become a global practice. The role of several inorganic elements in the maintenance of normal body metabolism has been documented. Previous studies examining trace metals content of approved herbal preparations have focused mostly on heavy metals with little or no attention given to micronutrients. A pilot study on selected trace metal and micronutrient constituents of one of the herbal products regularly consumed by the populace was conducted to bridge this gap.
Methods: A well known herbal product Yoyo bitters (YYB) was purchased from one of the pharmaceutical shops within the Metropolis. As an inclusion criterion, the product was ascertained to have been registered with the National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). The manufactured and expiry dates of the products were inspected and all were confirmed to be within the acceptable time frame. In all, fifteen (15) bottles of the product, each containing a 100 ml of syrup were purchased and levels of Iron, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Iodine were determined using standard method. Data obtained were compared with United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended allowable intake for these metals.
Results: Showed that the selected herbal remedy contained mean (±SD) levels of: Iron 12600 (350) µg/L); Copper 200 (0) µg/L); Zinc 300 (0) µg/L); Lead 400 (10) µg/L) and Iodine 145500 (3560) µg/L respectively.
Conclusion: While the herbal product investigated contained allowable levels of copper and lead, high levels of iodine and iron were detected. This might imply that iodine and iron toxicities could be a likely adverse effect associated with the use of this product. The need to exercise caution to avoid possible Iodine and Iron overload due to excessive consumption of this herbal product was highlighted in this work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Resveratrol Co-Administration with Cholesterol Diet on Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Malondialdehyde Concentration in Rabbits

A. Jimoh, Y. Tanko, A. Ahmed, A. Mohammed, J. O. Ayo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15856

The aim of the experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administration with cholesterol diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six group of five animals (n = 5) each were used for the experiment: Group 1 = normal control (C), group 2 = cholesterol diet (CD) only, group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol 400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = CD + R200 and group 6 = CD + R400. Eight weeks after the treatment period, blood sample of about 5 ml (3 ml in EDTA bottle for erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) test and 2 ml in plane tube for extraction of serum for malondialdehyde concentration (MDA) were drawn from the heart of each sacrificed animal from all group by cardiac puncture. At 0.45% of NaCl concentration, the percentage haemolysis of 100% obtained in the CD group was considerably higher than the value of 59% recorded in the CD + R400 mg/kg and 30% haemolysis recorded for normal control group. Increases in haemolysis were indicated on the point in the graph presented. The MDA concentration obtained in the CD group rabbits (2.64±0.18 nmol/ml) was higher compared to those of CD + R200 and CD + R400 with a value of 1.70±0.14 nmol/ml and 1.64±0.12 nmol/ml respectively. It is concluded that CD increased haemolysis and MDA concentration in rabbits, ameliorated by resveratrol administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Derivatisation of Cashew Gum via Cross-linking with Citric Acid: Characterisation and Preliminary Evaluation of Tableting Properties

A. Abdulsamad, A. R. Oyi, A. B. Isah, I. Odidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-34
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15869

A polycarboxylic acid, citric acid, was used to derivatise cashew gum via cross-linking. A dispersion of the purified gum, the acid and sodium dihydrogen phosphate was made in deionised water and concentrated by heating at 40ºC for 18 h. The resulting solid mass was heated at 140ºC for 30 min for the cross-linking. The cross-linking was demonstrated using DSC and FT-IR, and the derivative was characterized by determination of the solubility, water content, swelling and water holding capacity, moisture sorption and desorption, particle flow properties and preliminary studies on drug release in tableting. The results obtained indicated that the cross-linked product differed from the parent gum. At 10 %w/w it retarded drug release while at 3 %w/w it enhanced drug release. The activity of the cross-linked gum in tableting is concentration dependent but could evidently find use as drug release modifier.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Potential of Methanolic Extract of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) Seeds on the Sperm Parameters, Testosterone Level and Testicular Cytoarchitecture of Male Albino Rats Induced with Lead-Acetate

Onyeso Godspower, Nkpaa Kpobari Williams, Nwaka Elochukwu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15358

The study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative potential of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus (C. lanatus; watermelon) seeds on lead-acetate induced testicular toxicity considering the sperm parameters, testosterone level and testicular cytoarchitecture on adult male albino rats. The results showed statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum level of testosterone and a deleterious effect on the sperm motility, count, morphology, viabilityand seminiferous tubular derangement on lead-acetate treated rats when compared with the control group. The methanolic extract of C. lanatus seed from the results showed a corrective effect as against the lead-acetate treated group in relative to the control group. In conclusion it was discovered that methanolic extract of C. lanatus seed has ameliorative potentials to correct the deleterious effect of lead-acetate on male reproductive system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Effects of N-Hexane and Chloroform Fractions of Ceiba pentandra Leaf Used in the Folkloric Treatment of Diabetes

H. L. Muhammad, M. B. Busari, U. S. Okonkwo, A. S. Abdullah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-60
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15728

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of n-hexane and chloroform fractions of ethanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaf was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Study Design: Experimental study design.
Methodology: Twenty eight healthy albino rats weighing between 100-180 g were randomly allotted to seven groups of four rats each. 100 mg/kg bodyweight (b.w) of alloxan monohydrate was administered intraperitonially to rats and rats with blood glucose >200 mg/kg b.w considered diabetic. 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w of both fractions (n-Hexane and Chloroform) were administered to rats in their respective groups orally once daily for twelve days. The blood glucose was checked after every four days and the experiment was terminated on the seventeenth day. The animals were anesthetized under chloroform vapor and the blood samples were collected by carotid puncture into heparin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottles.
Results & Discussion: Both fractions showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity when compared to untreated group, and no significant (P>0.05) gain in bodyweights were observed. The fractions possess hematopoietic activity as there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in platelet count in chloroform extract treated group and white blood cell count in all the groups treated with fractions. All the fractions showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline aminotransferase, potassium, urea and chloride levels as opposed to the untreated group. 200 mg/kg b.w of n- hexane fraction group depicted more lowering effect (p<0.05) on cholesterol and triglyceride while 400 mg/kg b.w of same extract treated group showed a significant (p<0.05) elevation. Generally, there were no variations in total protein and serum albumin among the groups. Sodium, bicarbonate, high density lipoprotein, total bilirubin, creatinine and conjugated bilirubin showed significant (p<0.05) increase in all treated groups when compared with normoglycaemic group.
Conclusion: n-hexane and chloroform fractions contain potent hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic agents which are dose dependent and capable of reversing hyperglycemia and the abnormalities associated with the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Polyphenols Content of Wild Edible Polypore Mushrooms – Bondazewia berkeleyi and Ganoderma lucidum

Emmanuel E. Essien, Blessing I. Udoh, Nimmong-uwem S. Peter

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16196

Aim: To determine the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of B. berkeleyi and G. lucidummethanol extracts.
Study Design: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant assays and quantitative determination of total phenolics and flavonoids content of B. berkeleyi and G. lucidum mushroom extracts.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Nigeria (August – November, 2014).
Methodology: The total phenolics content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu method and total flavonoid content was determined using aluminum chloride. In vitro antioxidant activities of extracts were studied in different systems including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and metal chelating activity along with standards.
Results: Total phenols content in B. berkeleyi and G. lucidum was 32.99 and 42.7 mg GAE/g and flavonoids amounted to 22.4 and 35.23 mg QE/g respectively. The extracts of B. berkeleyi and G. lucidum exhibited significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values 22.9 μg/ml and 14.6 μg/ml; metal chelating capacity of 67.4% and 82.6% at 500 μg/mL respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study substantiates the use of the extract of G. lucidum powder as an antioxidant agent and serves as a pointer for further exploitation of B. berkeleyi mushroom for its antioxidant compounds and other potential biological activity.