Open Access Original Research Article

Various Emerging Trends in Insulin Drug Delivery Systems

Yasmeen ., T. Mamatha, Md. Zubair, Sana Begum, Tayyaba Muneera

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 294-308
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/12528

Lowering of blood glucose level in patients can be achieved by insulin therapy as it plays a key role in the control of hyperglycaemia for type 1 diabetes. Insulin delivery systems that are currently available include syringes, infusion pumps, jet injectors and pens. The tedious part for the type 1 diabetes patients is to tolerate needle after needle injections while undergoing treatment for both glucose measurement and to deliver insulin. A rigorous research effort has been undertaken worldwide to replace the authentic subcutaneous route by a more accurate and non-invasive route. The newer methods explored include the artificial pancreas with closed-loop system, transdermal insulin, and buccal, oral, pulmonary, nasal, ocular and rectal routes. The future trends include use of insulin inhalers, trandermal patches, pills, pumps etc. Some of the non-invasive delivery systems include polymeric hydrogels and insulin loaded bioadhesive poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for oral delivery, aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine for pulmonary delivery, β cyclodextrins for nasal delivery, microneedle arrays fabricated from hyaluronic acid and iontophoresis for trandermal delivery, chitosan-zinc-insulin complex for the controlled delivery of insulin. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Indian Lettuce Extract as Feed Additive Enhances Immunological Parameters in Mono-Sex Nile Tilapia against Aeromonas hydrophila

Farzana Yeasmin, Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain, Aisha Khatun, Mohammad Zillur Rahman, Md. Eftakher Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 309-318
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15436

Aims: The present study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of Lactuca indica extract on immunological parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in mono-sex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.
Place and Duration: This experiment was performed in the Laboratory of Fisheries and Marine Bioscience (FMB), Jessore University of Science and Technology (JUST), on July to December 2013.
Methodology: Lactuca indica extract preparations, harbal diet preparations, Aeromonas hydrophila Isolation, specific and non-specific immunological assays (following phagocytic activity and serum agglutination) and challenge test were performed.
Result: A. hydrophila is a more drastic disease producing and common cause of bacterial haemorrhagic septicaemia, it is a gram-negative, non spore-forming, rod-shaped, yellowish colony forming bacteria. Fishes were fed with L. indica extract at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2.0%; among those 2.0% showed highest significant responses in phagocytic activity, specific growth rate, specific and non-specific immune responses on week 2 and 4 compared to control diet whereas the changes did not manifest on first week. All groups fishes were injected intraperiotonaly (i.p.) with A. hydrophila at 3.5×10-7 CFU ml-1 for analyzing cumulative mortality on 30th day of feeding. L. indica enriched diet at 2.0% level resulted in lowest mortality (20%) indicating highest protection (Relative Percent Survival, RPS 75%) from A. hydrophila infection than 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% doses diet that resulted 72%, 56% and 32% mortalities respectively. 2% dose also showed highest growth compare to other doses.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the dietary supplementation of L. indica extract stimulates immunostimulants, reduce mortality and increases disease resistance in O. niloticus against A. hydrophila infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hospital Pharmacists’ Participation in Multidisciplinary Ward Rounds: Physicians’ Perceptions and Attitudes

Roland Nnaemeka Okoro, Mohammed Adamu Auwal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 319-327
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/12849

Aims: To survey the physicians’ perceptions and attitudes towards pharmacists’ participation in multidisciplinary ward rounds (MDWRs) and to ascertain their acceptance of such practice in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH).
Methods: This study was conducted at the UMTH, between September and October, 2011 using a validated questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to consented physicians out of the 246 physicians in the active service of UMTH as at the time of this study. The questionnaire was composed of three parts investigating the physicians’ perceptions and attitudes towards pharmacists’ participation in MDWRs. Data analyses were done using descriptive statistics and student’s t test with p < .05 significant difference.
Results: A total of 151 questionnaires were completed and retrieved (response rate = 88.8%). Nearly one-half (49.6%) of the target physicians which translates to most participated physicians that perceived that drug related morbidity and mortality are often preventable and pharmaceutical services can reduce the number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), and the length of hospital stay of a patient. A little above one-half (50.4%) of the population agreed that pharmacists’ participation in MDWRs enables pharmacists provide educational services on drug related issues to other members of health care team, while 49.2% agreed that it enables pharmacists function and serve as integral members of the health care team. Nearly one-half (49.2%) of the target physicians disagreed that pharmacists’ participation in MDWRs diminishes the responsibilities of physicians prescribing for patients. More than one-half (56.5%) of the target physicians reported that they consult pharmacists when confronted with drug related problems. The indices of physicians showing how they perceived pharmacists’ participation in MDWRs and their attitudes towards it were 42.1% and 48.7% respectively. The mean of physicians’ attitude index and that of year of experience in practice showed significant difference (p < .05) when paired, it was revealed that physicians with lower year of practice experience exhibited more positive attitudes than their older colleagues.
Conclusion: Physicians at the study area had positive perceptions and attitudes towards pharmacists’ participation in MDWRs. Therefore, they were of the opinion that they would welcome such practice in the UMTH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Advanced Central Effects of Yohimbine on the Cognitive Function, Psychomotor Performance Task and Working Memory: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Study

Hayder M. Al-Kuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 328-335
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15255

Systemic administration of yohimbine lead to powerful anxiety-promoting effects and facilitated long-term performances, due to α2- adrenergic receptor action , while its effect on the extinction of reward-related memories are probabilistically independent of their effects on α2- adrenergic receptors. So the objective of presenting study was to evaluate the enhancement effects of yohimbine on psychomotor performance and working memory in normal young healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects (10 females: 10 males) randomly chosen by medical students. They were healthy, young volunteers aged 21 - 23 years were incorporated in the study while those with proof of any disease were excluded. The participants were permitted to practice on both the psychomotor tester and the n-back task (working memory test) to obtain familiarity with those tests before the commencement of the trial. Yohimbine significantly improve human psychomotor reaction time, and critical flicker fusion threshold significantly (p<0.05) also it improve accuracy rates in both 1-Back and 2-Back significantly (p<0.05) but produced insignificant effects on 3-Back (p>0.05).
In conclusion yohimbine improve psychomotor performances and working memory, thus advance the cognitive function via activation of noradrenergic system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Acacia modesta Wall against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity

Muhammad Shafeeq ur Rahaman, Mueen Ahmad Chaudhry

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 336-343
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15559

Aims: Aim of present study was to investigate the protective effect of Acacia modesta bark (Am. Cr) and its proposed mechanism against Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Study Design: Albino mice (20-30 g) of either sex were divided into five groups with six animals in each. Group-I was considered as–ve control (received normal saline), Group-II as + ve control (received paracetamol), while Group-III, IV and V as trail (received crud extract of A. modesta bark 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg respectively). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for analysis of different markers of hepatotoxicity.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, between April 2013 and 0ctober 2013.
Methodology: Hepatotoxicity was assessed by evaluation of serum levels of hepatic metabolic enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metabolic content; Bilirubin and level of plasma proteins synthesize by liver (albumin and globulin), by using Randox Test Kits and biochemical analyzer Microlab 300 respectively. The antioxidant effect of Am.Cr was assayed through in vitro analysis of free radical scavenging activity by using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) solution.
Results: Am. Cr decreases the hepatic enzymes; AST, ALT and ALP, which indicates that Am.Cr contain hepatoprotective constituent(s). Am. Cr bark extract protected against decrease in serum Albumin and Total Protein levels caused by Paracetamol. Am. Cr also showed a good antioxidant activity comparable to Ascorbic acid. Presence of antioxidant constituent(s) was also supported by Tannins and saponins, found during phytochemical analyses of crude extract.
Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of hepatoprotective constituent(s) in extract of A. modesta bark and give the logical bases for the use of A. modesta as hepatoprotective regime and strongly suggest that this hepatoprotective effect is due to the presence of MDME (microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme) inhibition and antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Investigations on the Traditional Pharmacopoeia about Venomous Bites and Stings from Scorpions, Snakes and Spiders; in the Hina Subdivision, Far-North, Cameroon

Noumi Emmanuel, Safiatou Mamoudou

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 344-358
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/8894

Background: This study aimed to find out (a) which plants and animals are used in popular phyto- and zootherapy for the treatment of spiders, scorpions and snake venoms in the Hina subdivision, of the Far-North Region of Cameroon, and (b) the reasons for these usage.
Methods: The morbidity data on venomous bites and stings was obtained from the Hina-Marback (main town of subdivision) hospital. Information on the treatment was gathered through interviews with traditional healers and conversation with people who had spent their entire lives in the region.
Results: Of the 31 patients recorded at Hina-Marback hospital, 22.58% are 3 to 10 years and 35.5% are 11 to 20 years old. Among victims, 41.9% were pupils of whom 64.5% were males. Necrotize bites and stings are most frequent constituting 67.7% of the total. Of 82 patients studied, bites from Echis ocellatus (49.9%) and Cobra nigricollis (23.2%) are most frequent. Twenty-two plant species belonging to 20 genera were collected, from which 22 therapeutic preparations are used for treatment. While some preparations such as from Annona senegalensis are used to treat necrotizing bites, those of Securidada longipedonculata are used for neuro-toxic bites. Chemistry and pharmacology confirm the virtues of these plants, which act by competing for the venom active binding sites. Also 6 animal species belonging to 5 genera were collected from which 8 therapeutic preparations are useful.
Conclusion: Traditional healers of Hina are able to overcome non-complicated bites and sting-related disorders. Chemotherapy with plant preparations and animal products are most frequently employed. Therapies used in combination show some efficiency. Ingestion of the flesh of venomous snake for treatment needs further investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Physical Characteristics of Some Commercially Available Brands of Amoxicillin Capsules

Aiwaguore Johnbull Obarisiagbon, Oladejo Peter Ogunlowo, Faith Agamah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 359-369
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/13926

Aim: To assess the quality of 10 brands of Amoxicillin Trihydrate 500 mg capsules.
Study Design: Experimental.
Place and Duration of Study: Experimental drugs were purchased from pharmacy in Okada and Benin and experimental work was carried out in Pharmaceutical Technology laboratory, Igbinedion University Okada
Methodology: A specific quality control method was developed for the determination and comparative study of the capsules and the quality was assessed through evaluation of organoleptic properties, uniformity of weight, disintegration, dissolution using the spectrophotometric method, moisture uptake as well as comparing analytical method (titration) and HPLC method for the determination of content uniformity. All the brands have suitable appearance.
Results: 7 brands passed the weight variation test, 9 brands passed the content uniformity test with HPLC method being faster and accurate, all the brands passed the disintegration test, 6 brands passed the dissolution test and for moisture uptake, 2 brands had a rapid increase in weight.
Conclusion: From the results obtained, it can be said that the majority of the commercially available brands of amoxicillin trihydrate are up to pharmaceutical standard of quality and are safe for use by consumers.