Open Access Short Research Article

In-vitro Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Inhibition by Achyranthes aspera L. and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam

Kumkum Agarwal, Ranjana Varma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-152
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14042

Introduction: Urolithiasis has plagued human kind since antiquity and in the present era, its frequency is increasing with maximum occurrence rate of calcium oxalate stones. Although dramatic changes in the methods of its treatment has undertaken, still need exists for search of antilithic drugs from the nature. Thus, the inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal formation by Achyranthes aspera L. and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. was investigated.
Methods: Leaf extracts of both the plants were screened by using nucleation assay. Different concentrations of both the extracts were screened.
Results: In the nucleation assay the% inhibition for calcium oxalate crystal formation was found to be directly proportional to the increase in concentration of the plant extracts. Achyranthes aspera showed maximum inhibition of 60.06±0.19% at 1000 mg/ml while Bryophyllum pinnatum showed maximum inhibition of 49.93±0.07% at the same concentration.
Conclusion: The present in-vitro study provides evidence that Achyranthes aspera is a potent anti-urolithiatic agent; however these in-vitro results should be confirmed in-vivo.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Need for Antimicrobial Stewardship: Prospective Study on Antimicrobial Utilization Pattern at Gondar Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia

Endalkachew Admassie, Wubshet Hailu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/11891

Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess antimicrobials utilization pattern among patients admitted in internal medicine wards.
Setting: The study was conducted at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
Methods: Prospective follow-up study design was used to assess antimicrobial utilization pattern of patients in internal medicine wards. Patients admitted in four internal medicine wards were followed prospectively over a month and a half.
Main Outcome Measures: WHO/INRUD hospital and patient care indicators for the use of antimicrobials were utilized to measure rational drug use. Descriptive and analytical statistics were done using SPSS version 19.
Results: A total of 142 patients were admitted in four wards during the study period. Of these, 85(59.8%) were initiated on one or more antimicrobials in their treatment regimen. Over the course of the study, a total of 238 patient antimicrobials were prescribed, of which 42% were intravenous. Average number of antimicrobials per hospitalization was found to be 2.8±1.4. Pneumonia was the most frequent diagnosis and Cephalosporin, notably Ceftriaxone was the most frequently prescribed medication. From total diagnoses undertaken, 45.8% were treated in-line with the national standard treatment guideline. Median duration of total antimicrobial course was 13 days, while the average hospital stays of patients were 17 days.
Conclusion: Higher consumption of antimicrobials and conspicuously broad-spectrum antibiotics was observed during the study period. Most of the antimicrobials were prescribed empirically rather than waiting laboratory diagnosis for definitive therapy. Utilization pattern of antimicrobials was, mostly not in concordance with the national standard treatment guideline. Hence, there is a need for further large scale study on the utilization pattern of antimicrobials nationwide and antimicrobial stewardship in Gondar University Hospital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Anti-hyperlipidemic Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Solanum melongena in Wistar Rats

J. N. Kateregga, S. Sooka, J. G. Ndukui

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14605

Hyperlipidemia is characterized by hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia and can lead to obesity, arteroscelerosis and hypertension among others. Although different types of oral hypolipidemic agents are available for treatment of the condition, there is a growing interest in plant-based remedies due to the side effects and high cost of conventional antihyperlipidemic drugs. This study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Solanum melongena (Egg plant) fruits in Wistar albino rats. Fresh S. melongena fruits were bought from the market. Both aqueous and ethanolic fruit extracts were prepared. The study rats were induced with hyperlipidemia by feeding them on a high fat diet for 3 weeks. The extracts were administered daily, orally for 2 weeks to the rats at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. Atorvastatin (4 mg/kg) and distilled water, administered orally, were used as positive and normal control respectively. After 14 days, blood samples were collected in non-heparinised vacutainers by cardiac puncture. Serum levels of LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using a Cobas 6000 automatic analyzer (Roche Diagnostic, USA). Phytochemical components of the extracts were determined qualitatively. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in blood total cholesterol and triglycerides in all experimental animals following feeding with a high fat diet, with a significant reduction (p<0.05) in LDL at post treatment when compared with pretreatment phase. All extract doses caused weight decrease in all treatment groups when compared to the normal control group. The 500 mg/kg dose of the ethanolic extract hand the greatest (p<0.05) anti-hyperlipidemic activity. S. melongena activity may be attributed to multiple mechanisms of phytochemicals present.

Open Access Original Research Article

Liposomal Encapsulation of Amikacin Sulphate for Optimizing Its Efficacy and Safety

Mohamed S. El-Ridy, Abd-Elhameed A. El-Shamy, A. Ramadan, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Gehanne A. Awad, Ahmed El-Batal, Amira M. Mohsen, Asmaa B. Darwish

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-116
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/9298

Aims: The abstract of the current study was to formulate amikacin sulfate in a liposomal formulatiom for enhancing its efficacy and safety.
Place and Duration of Study: Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, between 2010-2013.
Methodology: Amikacin sulfate liposomes were prepared by the vortex dispersion method using dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), cholesterol (CHOL) and charge inducing agent (CIA). Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and Stearyl amine (SA) were added as the negative and positive charge inducing agents respectively. Characterization of the prepared amikacin sulphate liposomes was performed. In-vitro release of selected formulations was estimated. A stability study for 45 days was performed. Investigation of the optimum dose for sterilization of amikacin sulfate liposomes was carried out. Selected amikacin sulfate liposomal formulations activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli infection in mice and compared to the free drug.
Results: The entrapment efficiencies ranged from 43.6±1.81 to 62.5±2.57%, the vesicles are well identified and present in a nearly perfect sphere like shape ranging in size from 54.3±11 to 362.1±56 nm and the polydospersity index values of all liposomal formulations were < 0.3. DSC of different liposomal formulations shows a change in transition temperature of the main phospholipids. In-vitro release profiles revealed biphasic release of the drug from liposomes. Physical stability performed at 2-8ºC for 45 days revealed low leakage of drug from all liposomal formulations investigated. Sterilization using gamma radiations revealed that a dose of 25 KGy was the optimum sterilization dose. The results also revealed less number of colonies forming units (cfu/ml) in the case of amikacin sulfate liposomes than the unentrapped drug.
Conclusion: It can be fulfilled from this work that amikacin sulfate liposomes represent promising carrier for delivery of amikacin offering good physical stability, high entrapment effeciencies and controlled drug release.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Prescribing Pattern among Physicians in an Outpatient Department of Tertiary Hospital, KSA

Ahmed S. Eldalo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-123
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14662

The Aim: Was to assess the current prescribing pattern in the outpatient settings of tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, using WHO core drug use indicators as a measurement tools.
Methods: A retrospective study was designed. The Study was carried out in the outpatient pharmacy department at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1000 prescriptions were selected randomly from January to December 2011.
Results: Patient's gender and age were not written in high proportion of prescriptions (24.2% and 85.3% respectively). In addition, patient's diagnosis was not mentioned in (65.8%) of total prescriptions. Instruction information was not available in (42%), while (16.2%) of prescriptions were prescribed in brand names and printed prescriptions were not found. There was a significant association between gender and availability of instruction in the collected prescriptions (P< 0.001).The mean number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 2.74 and only (16.3%) of prescriptions contained antibiotics.
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed many positive points with minor aspects of inappropriate prescribing pattern in outpatients departments in the hospital. Promoting the use of clinical computer system is substantial to get more safe prescribing. Development and active implementation of rational prescription guidelines together with a powerful accountability system is needed to ensure that prescribers adhere to it perfectly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Sida spinosa linn. Root in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

Ibrahim Shaikh, Preeti Kulkarni, Basheerahmed Abdulaziz Mannasaheb, Basel A. Abdel-Wahab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-136
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14629

Based on ethnobotonical approaches the ethanolic extract of the plant Sida spinosa Linn. has been traditionally claimed to have hypoglycemic properties.
Aim: Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic (SSE) and aqueous (SSA) extracts of Sida spinosa Linn. root in Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: SSE & SSA were subjected to acute toxicity studies (OECD guidelines). Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.v). Normal and diabetic rats were divided into different groups and orally administered with SSE, SSA (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) for 30 days. The study includes tolerance of oral glucose, estimation of serum insulin and insulin tolerance in diabetic rats, lipid profile and histopathological study.
Results: Ethanolic extract has reduced serum glucose levels to maximum of 40.73%. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed SSE, SSA (400 mg/kg) and Glibenclamide caused a significant antihyperglycemic effect with a reduction of 57.34%, 46.77% and 60.77% respectively after 120 min of glucose load. Both extracts were efficient in reducing the lipid parameters such as serum triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c to normal values and there was a marked rise in HDL-c level as compared to diabetic control group.
Conclusion: Results indicate that Sida spinosa Linn. Root possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incompatibility of Bisoprolol Fumarate with Some Super-disintegrating Agents

Abu Afzal Mohammad Shakar, Md. Jamal Hossain, Ruhul Kayesh, Asma Rahman, Md. Zakir Sultan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/13956

Aims: Bisoprolol fumarate, a selective β1adrenoreceptor blocker, is usually formulated as immediate release tablet dosage form. While developing the immediate release tablet formula in laboratory, the assay and dissolution results were found below acceptance limit in some formulation. The formulations differed only in disintegrating agents. Therefore a chemical interaction was suspected with some of the disintegrants with the drug used in the formulas. The aims of this study were to find out the interaction with the specific excipient.
Study Design: Consequently, a pilot study of binary mixture of Bisoprolol-excipients (conventionally used in solid dosage form, e.g. binder, diluents, disintegrating agents, glidants, dissolution enhancer etc.) was carried out in laboratory using different analytical methods such as dissolution tester, UV, HPLC, DSC etc. Also formulated tablets were studied.
Place: Study was carried in drug testing and analytical research laboratory in Center for Advanced Research in Sciences, University of Dhaka.
Results: From the study, bisoprolol fumarate was found quite incompatible with ‘sodium starch glycolate’(SSG) and ‘croscarmellose sodium’(CCS) both of which are used as disintegrating agents in conventional solid dosage forms. But other disintegrating agents such as kollidon CL (KCL) has shown no interaction towards bisoprolol fumarate.
Conclusion: Thus from this study we reached a valuable conclusion that bisoprolol fumarate is quite incompatible with two disintegrating agents namely sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. With sodium starch glycolate, the drug was found to be degraded by around 19% whereas with croscarmellose sodium degradation was estimated around 13% in freshly prepared tablets. On the other hand, kollidon CL is compatible with this drug in its solid dosage formulation.