Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Bacterial Activity of Pigments Isolated From Pigment-Forming Soil Bacteria

Md. Mamunur Rashid, Md. Fakruddin, Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar, Fatema Kaniz, Md. Alimuddin Chowdhury

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 880-894
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/5148

Aims: Search for novel antimicrobials such as bacterial pigments is an issue of priority now. This study aims to isolate pigments with anti-bacterial activity from soil bacteria.
Methodology: In this study, Pigment forming bacteria was isolated from soil samples collected from different sites of Dhaka city and its adjoining areas. Colonies of various colors such as yellow, golden yellow, red, pink, blue, green, purple and cream with both diffusible and non-diffusible pigments were isolated in pure cultures on nutrient agar plus 2 percent glycerol at pH 7.2 and 37ºC. Anti-bacterial activity of the pigments extracted from the bacteria were determined.
Results: 15 pigment forming bacteria was isolated from soil and identified to genus level as Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, chromobacterium, Xanthomonas, Aeromonas, Escherichia and Bacillus. All the pigments showed to be broad spectrum in terms of inhibitory activity against all the pathogens included in this study. Most of the pigments showed better anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. Highest zone of inhibition was resulted by pigment no 15 against Salmonella typhi and lowest zone of inhibition was observed for pigment 13 against Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the pigments except four (pigment no- 3, 10, 12, 15) were found to be bacteriostatic to the test pathogens. MIC value of the pigments ranged from 1500-4000 µg/ml and most of the pigments showed lower MIC value against gram-negative organisms.
Conclusion: On the basis of anti-bacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) pigment form Aeromonas (no- 6), Escherichia (no-10) and Pseudomonas (no-15) can be selected as effective anti-bacterial agent. Further studies are needed to use these pigments in food, cosmetic and textile industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial Activity of the Root Extracts of Cochlospermum tinctorium in Mice Experimentally Infected with Clinical Isolates of Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65)

Rebecca O. Ahmadu, Ezekiel Kogi, Iliya S. Ndams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 895-909
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/6861

Aims: To determine in vivo the antiplasmodial activity of two chromatographic fractions obtained from Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich root bark extract against Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice.
Methodology: Two chromatographic fractions were obtained from the crude methanolic extract of C. tinctorium root bark using petroleum ether (Fraction 1) and ethanol (Fraction 2) which were tested to determine their antiplasmodial activity in Swiss Albino mice infected with P. berghei berghei. Fraction 1 was administered at dose levels of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day, while fraction 2 was administered at dose levels of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. Chloroquine at 5 mg/kg per day was used as positive control and 0.2 ml normal saline was applied per day as sham.
Results: Fraction 1had a percentage antiplasmodial activity of 80.67%, 64.14% and 69.71% for the dose level of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively. Data shows that fraction 1 treatment was not dose dependent as the lowest dosage of 50 mg/kg/day produced the highest percentage antiplasmodial activity of 80.67%, while 5 mg/kg chloroquine gave 100% cure. The effects of all treatments were significantly different (p<0.05). Fraction 2 produced a dose dependent antiplasmodial activity of 62.42%, 65.70% and 98.17% in infected mice treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of the fraction respectively in direct proportion. Only the 100 mg/kg fraction antiplasmodial activity was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of 5 mg/kg chloroquine. The Median survival time post infection for infected mice treated with sham was 11 days, for infected mice treated with 50, 100 and 200mg/kg of fraction 1, the median survival time was 15.5, 15.5 and 19 days respectively, the log-rank (Mantle-Cox) test value of p<0.05 showed that survival curves are significantly different. The median survival time post infection for mice treated with 0.2ml normal saline per day was 11days, for mice treated with 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of fraction 2 the median survival time post infection was 19, 18.5 and 18 days respectively, Log-rank (Mantle-Cox) test value of p<0.05 indicates that survival curves are significantly different. The high antiplasmodial activity of 100 mg/kg fraction 1 was countered by its low survival time indicating a probable increase in toxicity to the mice with increase in dosage. The mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV) for infected mice treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg fraction 1, the mean PCV was 36.83%, 32.42% and 37.96% respectively, while infected mice treated with25, 50 and 100mg/kg the mean PCV was 40.22%, 27.50% and 43.04% respectively. Since the mean PCV for infected mice treated with sham was 29.50%and 43.40% for 5mg/kg chloroquine treated mice, both fractions of C. tinctorium possess anaemia ameliorating property. However, only that of 25 and 100 mg/kg fraction 2 were the same as that of 5 mg/kg chloroquine (p>0.05).There was however no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean percentage antiplasmodial activity of fraction 2 (65.26%) which was higher than that of fraction 1 (62.90%).
Conclusion: C. tinctorium root bark extractpossess antimalarial and anaemia ameliorating properties which validates its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Estimation of Piperine and Diosgenin in Ayurvedic Formulation

Sandhya Parameswaran, Shalaka Koshti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 910-919
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/8310

Goksuradi guggulu is a polyherbal formulation official in “Ayurvedic formulary of India” and used for dysuria, urinary obstruction, increased frequency and turbidity of urine, calculus, excessive vaginal discharge, gout. A simple, specific and precise high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been developed for quantification of piperine and diosgenin in Goksuradi guggulu. We report the extraction and estimation of these compounds in a laboratory prepared sample of Goksuradi guggulu and two of its marketed formulations. The compounds were chromatographed on precoated silica gel G 60 254 plates in the mobile phase comprising of toluene: hexane: ethyl acetate (6.8:0.2:3). Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the calibration plot was found to be linear in the range of 0.2-1µg spot-1 for piperine and 1.0 -3.0 µg spot-1 for diosgenin. The correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.9979 and 0.9915 for piperine and diosgenin respectively. Mean recovery (% w/w) for piperine in all the formulations was in the range of 97.61 - 98.90 and for diosgenin, it was 93.76 - 94.33.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Crude n-Hexane and Methanol Extracts of Cola acuminata Nuts

E. Nwanekwu Kenneth, A. Deniyi Bola, C. Izuka Kingsley, Gail Mahady

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 920-928
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/6960

Aim: To determine the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of crude n-hexane and methanol extracts of Cola acuminata nuts against standard and clinical strains of pathogenic bacteria and fungi species implicated in various infections.
Place and Duration of study: Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between February 2009 and September 2009.
Methodology: All the microorganisms were tested for their susceptibilities to the plant extracts by means of agar diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard guidelines. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations were determined using the broth dilution method.
Results: The methanol extract showed activity on all 16 isolates tested with zones of inhibition in the range of 10 to 19 mm for fungi and 13 to 20 mm for bacteria while that of n-hexane was completely inactive. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract was between 62.5 and 500 µg/ml with the fungi species having higher values. Phytochemical analysis of Cola acuminata nuts reveals the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and sugar. Griseofulvin, tioconazole and nystatin resistant Candida sp were sensitive to the methanolic extracts of C. acuminata. The kinetics of bactericidal and fungicidal studies show that 90% of Staphylococcus aureus and 99% of Candida albicans were killed within 3 h of contact time at a concentration of 250 µg/ml of the crude methanol extract of Cola acuminata.
Conclusion: In comparison with these antibiotics, the test plant extracts fared better in their antifungal activity and are capable of being a good replacement as alternatives if processed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wound Healing Activity of Premna latifolia Roxb.

Garima Pandey, V. Chaudhary, S. Yadav, P. S. Chauhan, Shyam Sundar Gupta, A. Mishra, A. K. S. Rawat, Ch. V. Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 929-942
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/8787

Aims: The study aims to understand the wound healing potentials of a 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of Premna latifolia stem using excision wound model.
Study Design: The wound healing potentials were simultaneously supported by observing the bacterial functional diversity of wound swabs using Biolog Eco plates. The antioxidant activity was performed using In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging assay.
Place and Duration of Study: CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow, between May 2013 and November 2013.
Methodology: Wound healing activity of the plant was studied using excision wound model. Animals were divided into three groups of six male rats each as control group (GI) dressed with compound free simple ointment. Test group (GII) treated with 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of P. latifolia stem (10% w/w) in ointment vehicle and standard group (GIII) group treated Nitrofurazone ointment, Himedia (0.2%w/w). The wound healing potential was further supported by the DPPH free radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of the plant. The phytochemical estimations were done using standard methods.
Results: Sugar and starch content in the plant was 3.55% and 5.54% respectively. Total tannins, phenol and flavonoid content were estimated to be 0.18%, 0.54% and 2.73%. The 50% ethanolic extract of the plant showed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 188.02µg/ml. A 69.15% of wound closure was observed on 10th day post wounding of the rats treated with 200 mg/kg of extract. The results also indicated significant antibacterial activity of the extract.
Conclusion: The 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of P. latifolia shows significant wound healing activity

Open Access Original Research Article

Introducing Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (MRDTs) at Registered Retail Pharmacies in Ghana: Practitioners’ Perspective

Audu Rauf, Berko Panyin Anto, George Asumeng Koffuor, Kwame Ohene Buabeng, Mohammed Abdul-Kabir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 943-953
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/8910

Aims: In much of Africa, Ghana inclusive, malaria has traditionally been diagnosed and treated presumptively: any patient with fever was presumed to have malaria and treated with antimalarial drugs. In this study, the retail pharmacies practitioners’ perspectives on the implementation of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests was sought and decisions analyzed in themes, using Realist Conceptual Approach.
Study Design: Cross-sectional quantitative and purposive study.
Place and Duration of Study: Registered private pharmacies in Ashanti Region of Ghana, between September and November, 2013.
Methodology: A structured pre-tested questionnaires (in non-study area) was self-administered to 99 practitioners in retail pharmacies to generated information on Practitioner’s characteristics, knowledge and experience on the MRDT kits, acceptance and willingness to use the test kits and challenge towards the use of the kit, for the thematic analysis.
Results: Practitioners within the age bracket of 30-40 years were highest (43%) and male representation was 67%. Pharmacists were 67% of practitioners and 17.1% had postgraduate qualification. 96.03% had ample knowledge of test kit and 0.99% use it always and logistic regression indicated no significance (Chi-square=0.751; LR=0.540 at p<0.05). Of the patients, 47.52% strongly agree to implement and 48.51 agree. 60.39% were definite to suggest to colleague and logistic regression indicated significant relation (Chi-square=0.000; LR=0.006 at p<0.05). 44.4% were very satisfied with presumptive diagnosis while 1% very dissatisfied.
Conclusion: The findings indicated willingness to implement the policy but presumptive diagnosis is still the practice. The evidence provides an opportunity to adapt a conceptual framework leading to the uptake of the policy.

Open Access Original Research Article

β(1-3)(1-6)-D-glucans Modulate Immune Status and Blood Glucose Levels in Dogs

Vaclav Vetvicka, Carlos Oliveira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 981-991
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/7862

Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding two different glucans coded as BGO1 and BGO2 into commercial feed of dogs.
Study Design: We measured changes in phagocytosis, levels of IL-2 in blood, antibody formation and level of blood sugar (normal homeostasis and experimentally-induced hyperglycaemie with streptozotocin).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, University of Louisville, and Department of Research and Development, Biorigin, June 2012 and May 2013.
Methodology: The technique employing phagocytosis of synthetic polymeric microspheres was used for evaluation of phagocytic activity. IL-2 production was evaluated in serum by an ELISA kit. Formation of antibodies was tested using ovalbumin as an antigen, level of specific antibodies was measured by ELISA. Blood sugar evaluation was done both in normal animals and in animals with experimentally-induced hyperglycaemie. The level of glucose in serum was measured by Antech Diagnostics.
Results: In phagocytosis, both glucans significantly (P ≤0.05 level) increased the phagocytic activity of blood monocytes and neutrophils. Both glucans were active in IL-2 tests, but BG01 activity was 160% of that of BG02. Similar data were achieved in evaluation of effects on antibody response – BG01 reached OD of 0.717, whereas BG02 reached OD 0.411. Blood sugar evaluations showed no effect of glucan on normal dogs, but significant (P ≤0.05 level) reduction in dogs with hyperglycaemie (both glucans showed same activity).
Conclusion: Our data showed that both glucans had significant immunomodulating effects in immune reactions in the dog model, strongly suggesting that supplementation of feed with these glucans results in improvement of biological and immunological conditions of dogs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory, Antiarthritic and Antinociceptive Activities of 3,5-Disubstituted Thiazolidine Derivatives

Diana Jussara do N. Malta, Larissa Cardoso C. Araújo, Aline S.G Carrazoni, Fernanda Virginia B. Mota, Sandra Cabral da Silva, Maria Andrea de S. Carmino, Maria do Carmo A. Lima, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 992-1003
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/8736

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic and antinociceptive effects of two thiazolidinedione derivatives: 3-(2-bromo-benzyl)-5-(4-methylsufonyl-benzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (LPSF/GQ-125) and 3-(2,6-difluoro-benzyl)-5-(4-methylsufonyl-benzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (LPSF/GQ-192).
Study Design: Study the effects of thiazolidinedione derivatives on the inflammatory process.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, between March 2010 and February 2012.
Methodology: The carrageenan-induced air pouch in mice was performed and cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-1β) were determined. Arthritis was induced in female wistar rats by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). To determine the antinociceptive activity, acetic acid-induced nociception and hot plate tests in mice were utilized.
Results: Treatment with the compounds reduced leukocyte migration and the release of both TNF-α and IL-1β in the air pouch. Both LPSF/GQ-125 and LPSF/GQ-192 reduced the CFA-induced paw edema and the nociception induced by acetic acid; the hot plate test, however, showed no antinociceptive activity when compared to the control group.
Conclusion: These results indicate that LPSF/GQ-125 and LPSF/GQ-192 exhibit promising anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiarthritic activities related to their ability to inhibit TNF-α and IL-1β production as well as reduction of leukocyte migration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanol Extract of Valeriana wallichii in CCl4 Treated Rats

S. N. Syed, W. Rizvi, A. Kumar, A. A. Khan, S. Moin, A. Ahsan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1004-1013
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/7378

Aims: To screen the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of roots of Valeriana wallichii DC (Valerianaceae)(VWE).
Study Design: Animal study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Anatomy (Histology section), J N Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, India, between July 2010-July 2012.
Methodology: The VWE extract was subjected to in vitro antioxidant and phytochemical screening. For In vivo hepatoprotective studies albino rats of either sex were used. For the study, three control groups were taken comprising of the normal control (normal saline), negative control (CCl4) and positive control group (Silymarin 50mg/kg). The test group was given a dose of 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg of VWE extract. Biochemical parameters (Transaminase (AST,ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Total Bilirubin), histopathological examination and in vivo antioxidant tests [Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GSH) and Malonlydialdehyde (MDA)] were performed.
Results: The phytochemical study of VWE showed the presence flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. A dose dependent increase in the oxidative potential was observed in the extracts with total phenolic content 66.4GAE/g extract. VWE 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in levels of AST, ALT and ALP as compared to negative control (percentage hepatoprotection=73% and 68% respectively). The GSH (p<0.001) and CAT in VWE 500mg/kg were significantly increased while MDA levels were decreased (P<0.001) as compared negative control. The findings were confirmed histopathological examination.
Conclusion: The ethanol extract of Valeriana wallichii showed dose dependent partial hepatoprotection against CCl4induced toxicity.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Drug Interactions: A Comprehensive Update

Madhav Mutalik, Dhara Sanghavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 954-980
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/8531

Prescribing multiple medications predisposes to possibilities of occurrence of drug interactions. Various different terminology and ways exist to classify or arrange drug interactions. Drugs interact with other drugs, foods, beverages and herbs; outside or inside the body. Knowledge of In vitro interactions is essential to avoid loss of activity of drugs before administration. Although every theoretical drug interaction may not manifest in practice, drug interaction is a prominent cause of adverse or undesired events related to drug administration. Amongst the herbs, St. John’s wort has a potential of producing significant drug interactions due to its capacity to induce metabolism of number of drugs. In vivo interactions at pharmacokinetic level affect absorption, distribution, biotransformation or excretion of drugs. Induction or inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes forms a major basis of drug interactions. Induction of metabolism of a substrate drug leads to treatment failure. Inhibition of metabolism leads to serious interactions by aggravating toxicity of substrate drugs. As compared to induction, inhibition is a fairly rapid process, and number of precipitant drugs which inhibit the metabolism is much more than that of inducers. Role of drug transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in causation of drug interactions is being increasingly identified. P-gp affects absorption, distribution and excretion, and hence plays a major role in pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Additionally, P-gp works hand in hand with CYP450 enzymes. In pharmacodynamic interactions, the drugs synergise or antagonise the effect at the level of target of action. Clinically beneficial and reparative drug interactions are explored to obtain useful drug combinations. Extensive research has led to development of a large number of In vitro and In vivo methods to detect and predict drug interactions. Appropriate awareness and knowledge of possible drug interactions is crucial in prevention of drug interactions and their consequences.