Open Access Original Research Article

The Immune Features of Neutrophil and Neutrophil Immune Deviation Induced by Human SARS-COV-2 Infections

Ibrahim M. S. Shnawa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50B, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50B36437

Current published scientific works on human neutrophils have shown them to be heterogeneous in their immune functions. Activated neutrophil perform both up regulation and down regulation processes on other immune cells finalized by either tissue protection or tissue damage in virus human diseases. The objectives of the present opinion were to; I - make a show case analysis for the immune activities of neutrophil compartment both in children and adults with coviod-19 illness and ii - to deduce the possible existence of immune deviation mechanisms in this disease .The absolute numbers of circulating neutrophils in childhood and adulthood patients with sars-cov-2 infection were correlated with the infection severity .It was apparent that there was inhibition of T cell mediated immune responses with an elevated sars-cov-2 anti-spike antibodies in continuum with activated immature neutrophil phenotypes that might be induced by the virus antigens and can either preserve or damage the affected tissue. The antibody may directly inhibit T cells or activate neutrophil phenotype to inhibit T cell responses. The features of this immune deviation are; i – Conditional, ii – reversible, iii – associated with active functional state, iv – the virus antigen induced chemokine that orchestrate neutrophil and induce hyper-cytokinemia, v – acquisition of molecular surface markers variation and appearance of inhibitory markers, vi – the neutrophil/lymphocyte ration dis-proportionated, vii – activation consequences leaves tissue pathology at most, and viii – The inflammatory circuit stages may serve drug target identification and development. Thus the opinion suggest that the absolute number of circulating neutrophils is correlated with disease severity and the existence of neutrophil immune deviation in covid-19 human disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Streptomyces peucetius M1 and Streptomyces lavendulae M3 Soil Isolates as a Promising Source for Antimicrobials Discovery

Vikas Jha, Tisha Jain, Divya Nikumb, Yukta Gharat, Joshua Koli, Namrata Jadhav, Janavi Gaikwad, Pratiksha Dubey, Divya Dhopeshwarkar, Shruti Narvekar, Agraj Bhargava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50B, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50B36438

The ever-increasing fatality due to the surge of drug resistance has demanded the development of therapeutic metabolites with novel modes of mechanism. Despite the discovery of new antimicrobials, antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate. The emergence of novel molecules is necessary for targeting the Multidrug (MDR) and Pan-Drug resistant (PDR) pathogens which are the principal cause of life-threatening infections. Streptomyces strains commonly found in the soil produce secondary metabolites which have outstanding potential for being an antifungal and antibacterial agent. This study aims to isolate, identify, and characterize Streptomyces strains isolated from soil and extract their crude metabolites to determine their hidden therapeutic property. Out of four isolates identified, Streptomyces peucetius and Streptomyces lavendulae have shown significant antimicrobial activity against test organisms. To further determine the activity of their extracts GC-MS analysis, and MIC, as well as radical scavenging activity, were determined. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of compounds 2,3-butanediol, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-4-carboxamide, and L-Lactic acid which are frequently associated with potent antimicrobial nature. The most vulnerable pathogen to M1 extract was Candida albicans with a MIC value of 7.8125 μg/mL while the susceptible bacteria to M3 extract included Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 3.90 μg/mL. The data obtained for antioxidant activity in the case of metabolic extracts M1 and M3 had an IC50 value of 43.17 µg/mL and 22.65 µg/mL respectively. The above findings hint at the unrealized potential of Streptomyces strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Methanolic Extract of Fruits of Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae) on Danio rerio Embryos

P. K. Lawrence, M. L. A. M. S. Munasinghe, W. T. P. S. K. Senarath, Sugandhika Suresh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50B, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50B36440

Aims: Catunaregam spinosa is an exotic plant in Sri Lanka. Fruits of this plant contain saponins, steroids, flavonoids possessing piscicidal property. Since years ago C. spinosa employs in the fishery industry, especially in rural areas. This study was established to evaluate the toxicity and the teratogenic effects of fruits of C. spinosa on D. rerio embryos.

Methodology: Semi-static renewal method was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration. Concentrations of 15.0, 17.0, 19.0, 21.0, 23.0 and 25.0 mg L-1 were tested with twenty embryos per treatment. Each concentration was triplicated. Dilution water and 3, 4- Dichloroaniline at 4.0 mg L-1 were tested for negative and positive controls respectively. Four apical observations and teratogenic effects were examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h time intervals.

Results: Embryos exposed to 19.5 mg L-1 concentration exhibited 50% mortality at p = 0.05 significance level. Embryos exposed to high concentrations exhibited more teratogenic deformities with a high mortality rate. Negative control recorded >90 % survival rate and positive control 95.0% lethality after 96 h exposure. Hatchability was negatively correlated with the concentration of the extract.

Conclusion: Methanolic fruit extract of C. spinosa showed concentration-dependent mortality and the teratogenic effects on D. rerio embryos. It could be concluded that the fruits of C. spinosa show moderate piscicidal activity.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Active Packaging in the Food Industry: A Review

Urvashi Chauhan, Ekta Singh Chauhan, Pranjali Chauhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50B, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50B36439

In response to shifting consumer demands, food packaging's conventional function is continuing to change. Consumer desire for healthier, safer and good quality meals with longer shelf-life is one of the current causes that are challenging the food packaging sector to produce new and better technology packaging solutions. Therefore, Active packaging (AP) can be used to satisfy these requirements. The biggest advantage of Active packaging (AP) is less food waste because the items have a longer shelf life. Undoubtedly, active packaging is a great option for a variety of food sector applications. In the upcoming years, the commercial success of active packaging systems should be anticipated as they represent the growth of food packaging in the future. In this review, a summary of active packaging technologies, including oxygen scavenger, moisture scavenger, ethylene absorber, antioxidant-releaser, CO2 emitter, and antimicrobial packaging systems are provided. In particular, reviews of scientific studies emphasizing the advantages of these technologies for certain food products are conducted. However, the development of food nano-packaging is still in its early stage, despite having numerous opportunities to enhance packaging materials and functions. Although, due to the advancements in nanotechnology there might be higher chances of enabling the creation of better active packaging. This article also discusses current breakthroughs in food nano packaging based on active nanoparticles.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Herbal Medicines in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Faryal Javed, Summiya Zubair, Hassan Imran, Safia Sultana Munir, Humayun Riaz, Misbah Sultana, Ruqaiya Rasheed Kayani, Saba Manzoor, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Muhammad Maaz Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50B, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50B36441

Mutation in several factors and pathways leads to the development of hepatic cancer i.e. Mutation in Wnt-β-Catenin Signalling Pathway , activation of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Signalling Pathway, The P13/PTEN/AKT, TP53 Tumour Suppressor Gene. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver predispose the normal tissues to fibrosis leading to liver cancer. Excessive alcohol intake results in the inflammation of liver proceeding to cirrhosis and ultimately hepatic carcinoma. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is multi-centric i.e. has huge variability in its spread which differs from person to person. Four approaches are practiced for treatment of hepatic cancer; surgery, transarterial intervention, percutaneous intervention, and drug approach. Surgery includes liver transplant and tumour resection. Transarterial approach includes chemoembolization and embolization. Percutaneous approach includes radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) and ethanol injection. Drugs are various including herbal plant medicines, herbal formulae, synthetic drugs, immune, and gene therapies. Zingiber officinal, Schinus molle L., Zerumbone, Curcuma longa and Mammea siamensis are some of the plant medicines.