Open Access Original Research Article

Loss of Taste and Smell Sensation in COVID-19: A Questionnaire Based Multicontinental Study with Review

Fatema Akhter, Mohammed Malik Afroz, Tahsinul Haque, Khetam Alarady, Agharid Fouad Al Yaqoub, Ghadah Salim Abu Salim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50A, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50A36432

Introduction: Taste buds are the peripheral organs of gustation and are located mainly in the tongue epithelium and palate. Taste buds further sample the chemical makeup of foods and beverages for nutrient content, palatability, and potential toxicity. On the other hand, the smell acts as a major factor and mostly functions involuntarily thereby identify chemical makeup and protecting from potential toxic insult. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing viral pandemic that emerged from East Asia and quickly spread to the rest of the world. An important highlight is an atypical new presentation of the disease: patients with olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions.

Objectives: To know whether the loss of taste and smell are a reliable symptomatic indicator in early diagnosis of COVID as well as how it impacts on the nutrition and early patient’s recovery.

Results: A questionnaire originally developed by AAO – NHS (American academy of oto – laryngology neck and head surgery) was modified to include the questions related to loss of taste. We have included a total of 512 patient of which 82.4% were females. The common risk factor reported by our patients was close contact with a potentially confirmed case which accounted for 46.1%. The common comorbidities reported in the population has largely been related to breathing problems in the form of asthma 10.2%, sinus and smoking allergies of 5.7% which is a known factor in the spread of Covid in these patients. We have noticed in our population that there was a loss of smell and taste noticed in all the subjects and among them 66.5% reported with anosmia and 52.3% reported with ageusia which was either overlooked or not understood by most of the patients. Hyposmia and Parosmia was 18.6% and 14.9% respectively while Hypogeusia and dysgeusia was 32.2% and 15.4% indicating that though complete loss of taste is less when compared to complete loss of smell but alteration in taste is much higher and was felt for a much longer duration of time and often reported but complete remission from loss of taste is not completed.

Conclusion: Loss of smell and taste should be considered as one of the reliable symptomatic indicators to covid infection and an active attempt should be made for its early remission for the patients to return back to normal intake of food leading to adequate nutrient supply

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Alcohol and Social Isolation on Yawning Behavior in Adult Male Rats, Treated with Opioid Receptor Agonist and Antagonist

Fatemeh Rafighdoost, Gholamhassan Vaezi, Shahram Sharafi, Hooman Shajiee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50A, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50A36433

The number of 88 rats was chosen, after 21 days, they were ablactated and categorized them as following groups:

The control group 1 has a cage of 8 rats in a social condition. After 6 weeks of saline injection (1mg / kg), the yawning behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 2 in social conditions of receiving ethanol for 2 months, each serving of 600 mg / kg. Group 3 social isolation without treatment with agonist and antagonist, Opioid and alcohol drugs in a separate cage, each cage has one rat. After 6 weeks, It is recorded the yawning was cured for 60 minutes.  Group 4 social isolation for 6 weeks and then treatment with alcohol agonist (1200 mg / kg) after 30 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 5 Social isolation after 6 weeks of treatment with opioid drugs (5mg / kg of morphine) after 30 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 6 social isolation after 6 weeks of morphine + alcohol antagonist treatment after 30 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 7 social isolation followed by 6 weeks of treatment with antagonist alcohol (naltrexone), 10 mg / kg, after 30 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 8 Social isolation after 6 weeks of treatment with antagonist morphine (naloxone) 1 mg / kg of bad breath after 30 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 9 social isolation followed by 6 weeks of treatment with antagonist alcohol + morphine after 30 minutes for 60 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 10 social isolation followed by 6 weeks of treatment with antagonist alcohol + morphine antagonist after 30 minutes for 60 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes. Group 11 Social isolation after 6 treatments with antagonist morphine + alcohol followed after 30 minutes for 60 minutes of yawing behavior is recorded for 60 minutes.

Injection of alcohol chronically reduces yawning, but alcohol injections in conditions of social isolation increase the number of yawns. Antagonist injection of naltrexone prior morphine in conditions of social isolation of yawning. Injection of morphine in conditions of social isolation does not change the number of yawning. Injection of morphine antagonist (naloxone) prior to antagonist of alcohol (naltrexone) in conditions of social isolation increases yawn. Also, the injection of morphine antagonist (naloxone) prior to alcohol into social isolation causes an increase in the number of yawns. Alcohol injection before morphine in conditions of social isolation increases the number of yawns.

It seems that the stress of social isolation by decreasing alcohol and morphine function increases the number of yawns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anteroposterior Lip Position in Different Skeletal Malocclusions

Abdul Jabbar, . Madiha, Maryam Mushtaq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50A, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50A36436

Introduction: The horizontal position of upper and lower lips have been of great concern when planning a treatment plan of an orthodontic patient, because the purpose of orthodontic treatment is to establish an esthetic facial profile and not just a functional occlusion.

Objectives: The objective of this research was to determine anteroposterior lip position in three skeletal malocclusion groups and to analyze different soft tissue lines.

Material and Methodology: This study comprised of eighty one subjects and lateral cephalographs were taken in natural head position. Five reference lines—Sushner, Steiner, Burstone, Holdway, and Ricketts were drawn after radiographs were traced. The linear measurement between the lips and the five reference lines was recorded. For statistical analysis, SPSS 21 was used.

Results: Using five soft tissue reference lines, a significant difference between the anteroposterior position of the lips in various skeletal malocclusions was discovered.

Conclusion: The skeletal malocclusion pattern was shown to be related to the sagittal lip positions. For sagittal lip position analysis, Every group of skeletal malocclusions had a different preferred reference lines.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Mixed Connective-Tissue Disease (MCTD)

Areej Abdullah Abdulwahed, Asrar Abdulhameed Alsinani, Nouf Ali Abdulwahab Alsaeed, Asmaa Hejazy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50A, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50A36434

Most scholars regard mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) to be a separate illness, whereas some suggest it might be a precursor to a distinct connective tissue disease, such as SLE, SSc, or overlap syndrome. There are no distinct clinical symptoms of MCTD, and clinical presentations vary greatly across individuals. Since the first description, the categorization as a distinct clinical entity has been debated, particularly because individuals with U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) may eventually match the diagnostic criteria of other 'specified' CTDs. Furthermore, not all investigations have corroborated Sharp's initial definition of MCTD as a benign illness with no organ involvement and a quick response to low-dose glucocorticoids. Mixed connective tissue disease is an uncommon illness with an unknown frequency. Raynaud's phenomenon, arthralgias, swollen joints, esophageal dysfunction, muscular weakness, and sausage-like fingers are the most prevalent clinical signs of mixed connective disease, along with the presence of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies. Although several sets of clinical criteria have been offered, there is no agreement on which is the most accurate.  MCTD frequently mimics various illnesses and can be readily misdiagnosed. However, many physicians like the Alarcon-Segovia and Villarreal criteria, owing to their simplicity and wide application. Here is little consensus on the initial or long-term therapy of MCTD, particularly the use of low-dose glucocorticoids, antimalarial, and immunosuppressive medications in varied clinical settings. In this article, we we’ll be looking at the disease epidemiology, assessment and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Kadukkai- Terminalia chebula Retz. (Elixir of Rejuvenation) – A Gift of Siddha Medicine

A. Aishwarya, B. K. Priya, V. Elakkiyaa, T. Monika, P. N. Sushil Kumar, P. Mirunaleni, K. P. Chaithanya, G. Kiruthiga, B. Akila

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 50A, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i50A36435

Aim: Natural products which are gradually gaining importance because of its medicinal value in clinical research due to their well-known property of fewer or no side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. World Health Organization also advised the general public to focus on enhancing their immune system to prevent from getting affected by pandemic diseases.

Methodology: In the traditional Siddha system of Medicine, there is a concept known as, ‘Yegha Mooligai Prayogam’ (Yega – single, Mooligai – herb, and Prayogam – application) which deals with single herb and their clinical application. Polyherbal formulation were consisting of herbs, metals, and minerals but, single herb therapy is safe, convenient and economical. The concept of Single herb as a therapeutic agent is widely recognized nowadays. Kadukkai (Terminalia chebula Retz., Family: Combretaceae) possesses a great therapeutic value and it is widely distributed in all over the India. Siddha Kayakarpam (rejuvenation) therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects and more recently has been included as a therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several other herbs, Kadukkai plays an important role in Kayakarpam therapy which balances the three bodily humors (Vatham, Pitham, and Kabam) or doshas that are the main reasons for illness. Kadukkai properties are known to support healthy bowel movements and gut health. Nowadays modern science also recognizes the gut as “the second brain” -perhaps the ancients recognized the relationship between a healthy gastrointestinal (GI) tract and clarity of mind.

Conclusion: Thereby, the single herb Kadukkai finds a special place, which has been compared as superior to the nursing mother. This study concluded that the consumption of Kadukkai in a certain way with various adjuvant in respective seasons will boost our immunity and helps to prevent diseases.