Open Access Original Research Article

Developing a Healing Formulation Able to Prevent Scar Hypertrophy

Patrizia Nardini, Matteo Urru, Alberto Chiarugi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48B, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48B36416

Derangement of the processes regulating wound healing leads to esthetical and functional problems, and its prevention still represents an unmet therapeutic need. Several compounds are endowed with the ability to redirect the healing process, and prevent excessive fibroblast proliferation, scar hypertrophy as well as keloids. In the present study, we evaluated the healing and anti-inflammatory effects of topical applications of a multicomponent healing formulation (MHF) containing bromelain, onion extracts, glycyrrhizin, and snail mucus as well as vitamin E and A in a mouse model of scar hypertrophy. Daily topical application of the MHF did not affect the healing rate. Still, the MHF significantly reduced the wound inflammatory response as evidenced by reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL6 and TNFα in the granulation tissue of mice exposed to MHF compared to control animals. In keeping with this, histological analysis of the scars showed that those from MHF-challenged mice were less hyperplastic, with reduced abnormal collagen deposition and, overall, appeared more hydrated and with higher conservation of tissue organization. The present study, on the one hand indicates that the MHF may be harnessed to prevent the evolution of the healing process toward scar hypertrophy or keloids in patients, and on the other that a multicomponent strategy is a rational approach to developing topical remedies to prevent abnormal wound healing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Geriatric Patients in Clinical Settings Comorbid with Psychiatric Disorders: A KAP Study

Arushi Tomar, Ritu Gupta, Iram Ahsan, Nidhi Puri, Asifa Ashraf, Shivangi Varshney

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48B, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48B36417

Background and Objectives: Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders raises health risks and has an impact on the condition, treatment and prognosis of elderly patients, necessitating holistic dental care for this age group. Thus, present study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, practice and awareness of psychiatric disorders and their relation to oral health amongst dental undergraduates, interns, postgraduate students and faculties treating geriatric patients.

Materials and Methods: A cross -sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 300 dental students and faculties from various departments. The questionnaire was developed and subsequent face validation was obtained from dental students followed by content validation from a medical expert and four dental experts which was then utilized to assess knowledge, attitude and practice amongst dental health practitioners and students for managing geriatric patients comorbid with psychiatric disorders.

Results: Of the total study participants, majority of faculties with clinical practice (86.0%]. had more knowledge regarding systemic disorders which can lead to psychiatric diseases in geriatric patients.66% of BDS interns and 40% of faculties evaluate the mental status of the geriatrics before commencing dental treatment. 64.9% of faculties and 56.4% interns believed in shared decision making for dentist patient relationship whereas remaining participants believed in dentist-based decision making which was found to be statistically significant (<0.001).

Conclusion: More evidence and research in this field is increasingly important and required to improve evidence-based clinical practice and therapy for geriatric patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Post-operative Pain in Patients with Platysma Muscle Suture versus no Suture for Wound Closure after Thyroid Surgery

Mehmood Ur Rehman, Mazar Taj, Mehmood Ali, Shakeel Akbar, Muhammad Zakaryya Bashir, Muhammad Yasir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48B, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48B36419

Objective: To assess the post-operative pain in patients with platysma muscle suture versus without platysma muscle suture used for wound closure after thyroidectomy.

Study Design: Randomized clinical trial.

Duration: January 2020 to March 2021.

Setting: Department of General Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi.

Methods: A total number of 68 patients planned for primary thyroid surgery, aged 18-60 years of both genders were included in this study. Patients were divided into two equal groups using draw randomization. In Group I: platysma muscle suture was used during wound closure after thyroidectomy. In Group II: No platysma suture was used during wound closure after thyroidectomy. Postoperative pain score was noted at 24 hours after thyroidectomy.

Results: Mean age of patients was 39.25±11.68 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) of patients was 24.48±3.60 kg/m2. Mean duration of surgery was 88.81±15.22 minutes. Mean postoperative pain score was 2.78±1.37. There were 39 (57.35%) females and 29 (42.65%) female patients. There were 18 (26.47%) patients having ASA I, 44 (64.71%) having ASA status II and 06 (8.82%) patients having ASA status III. There were 18 (26.47%) patients with hemi-thyroidectomy and 50 (73.53%) with total thyroidectomy. Post-operative pain score was 3.26±1.50 in with platysma muscle suture and 2.29±1.03 in without platysma suture (p-value 0.003).

Conclusion: As per current research, postoperatively, there was less discomfort related to the incision when the platysma muscle suture was not used. Further studies with a larger sample size is warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Ventricular Septal Rupture in Patients of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Aijaz Ali, Vashu Mal, Rameez Ahmed, Farhan Memon, . Lalchand, Muhammad Faizan, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh, Muhammad Yasir, Muhammad Tariq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48B, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48B36420

Objective: To determine the frequency of ventricular septal rupture in patients of acute myocardial infarction presented at the adult cardiology department of National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD), Karachi.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Karachi, Pakistan for a period of six months. A total of 384 patients with acute myocardial Infarction diagnosed within 4 weeks duration were included in this study. ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) was formed. Patients were followed for 7 days and the study outcome. Data was collected on a pre-designed structured questionnaire.

Results: The average age of the patients was 54.40±7.99 years. Frequency of ventricular septal rupture in patients of acute myocardial infarction was observed in 1.3% (5/384) in which defect in Inter ventricular septum was observed in 60%, Evidence of left-to-right shunt 40%.

Conclusion: Our study revealed a ventricular septal rupture (VSR) rate of 1.3%. The study further revealed a correlation between smoking and rate of VSR.A multidisciplinary team of researchers must work together to develop a plan that is specific to each patient.

Open Access Review Article

Advances in the Adverse Effects of Covid-19 Vaccination and the Concept of Vaccine Development

Md. Sadique Hussain, Sandeep Singh, Garima Dhingra, Himanshi Khatri, Sonia Tanwar, Anshuman Panchal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48B, Page 19-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48B36418

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an outbreak on a scale unseen in modern human history. More than two years after the outbreak began, there are 271 million fatalities and more than 5.32 million mortalities reported globally. Vaccination has been the most successful medical intervention in the last century to minimize mortality and suffering due to infectious illnesses. Only the discovery and dissemination of an effective vaccine will probably result at the end of this pandemic. Tremendous attempts have also been made to develop secure and convenient vaccinations. Vaccination is an efficient method of preventing viral illness, stopping its spread, and developing protective immunity. Improved understanding of protective immunity and significant advances in gene editing has enabled the development of a wide range of novel vaccines by manipulating sugars, RNA, proteins, and DNA. The development of attenuated mutants, the expression of prospective antigens in live vectors, and the purifying and direct production of antigens in novel systems have all greatly enhanced vaccination science. Several researchers have been working to assess the effectiveness and toxicity of potential vaccinations against new COVID-19. Furthermore, it is critical to assess the impact of immunization on the severity of illness. Vaccination is currently the most efficient method of regulating animal and human viral illnesses, either by avoiding fatality or drop in suffering. This review summaries several vaccinations developed by different countries. The details are taken and reviewed by a number of articles including research/review articles, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The articles were selected randomly and different data was collected to present as a short review.