Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Frequency of Impaired Lung Function in Treated Tuberculosis Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

Riaz Hussain, Sagheer Hussain, Mirza Saifullah Baig, Nisar Ahmed Rao, Rizwan Ali, Safdar Ali, Syed Qalb-i-Hyder

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46B36383

Background: Pulmonary impairment is a common manifestation in previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Approximately 40-60% of patients with history of complete anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) developed the obstructive, restrictive or mixed patterns of lung disease.

Objective: To determine the frequency and type of impairment of lung function in previously treated PTB patients.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Ojha Institute of Chest diseases, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi during the period of six months from April 2021 to September 2021. One hundred and forty four previously treated PTB patients with age of 18-60 years were selected through consecutive sampling. Spirometry of each patient was performed by trained spirometry technician and lung function was assessed by an experienced pulmonologist. Data was interpreted with SPSS v. 25.0.

Results: Out of 144 previously treated PTB patients, male were 83 (57.6%) and female were 61 (42.4%). Impaired pulmonary function was present in 87 (60.4%) patients, out of which 49 (56.3%) patients had obstructive impairment; 23 (26.4%) patients had restrictive impairment while 15 (17.2%) patients had mix pattern.

Conclusion: Prevalence rate of impaired pulmonary function was higher in treated PTB patients who have completed ATT. Obstructive pulmonary impairment was the most common pulmonary impairment followed by restrictive and mixed pulmonary impairment.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Study of the Inhibitory Activity of the Fractions of Onion (Allium cepa) and Shallot Bulb (Allium ascalonicum) Extracts on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE)

Celine Angelica Garcia, Khristy Joy Flores, Mikko Gamalo, Gezer Gandeza, Naomi Francise Garcia, Jenn Lori Gepaya, Maria Gerber, Shera Heart Go, Ore May Faith Gomez, Sarah Myza Katrina Guinta, Roanne Paula Herrero, Jo Anne Himagan, Cecile Melisse Derecho, Genevieve D. Tupas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46B36384

The impact of hypertension as being the leading cause of death in industrialized societies pressed the importance of low-cost and accessible therapeutic agents present in food sources. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in-vitro Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of flavonoid-rich Onion and Shallot bulb extracts. Ethyl acetate, Butanol and Aqueous fractions of onion and shallot bulb extracts at varying concentrations were obtained through purification by solvent extraction. Positive control was the prototype ACE-inhibitor, Captopril. ACE-inhibitory activity was determined using the ACE-kit commercially manufactured by Dojindo, Inc. (Japan). All fractions of onion and shallot bulb extracts exhibited greater than 50% inhibitory activity towards ACE.  The aqueous fractions of both bulbs showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity exceeding the flavonoid standard, Quercetin, and were comparable with the prototype ACE-I, Captopril.

Based on the study findings, onion and shallot bulbs can be potential sources of bioactive compounds that can inhibit the activity of ACE which can be used to provide a natural, perhaps safer, cost-effective alternative in reducing blood pressure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Characteristics of Hospitalized and Home Isolated Covid-19 Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Saba Zulfiqar, Mohammad Arif Sarwar, Alyia Javed, Javaria Hafeez, Fawzia Shahid, Waseem Akram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46B36385

Aim: To investigate pathological conditions of COVID-19 individuals having type 1 diabetes throughout hospitalization and home isolation.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included 32 COVID-19 in addition T1D individuals who sought therapy at Services Hospital, Lahore, between May 1, 2021, and July 30, 2021. Patient information was obtained from electronic medical records.

Results: 23.8 percent of 32 COVID-19 individuals having T1D needed hospitalization, whereas 78.1 percent needed home isolation. 10.6 percent (4/35) of the study group had hypertension, 23.7 percent (8/34) had chronic pulmonary disease (CPD), 17.9 percent (7/35) had thyroid abnormalities, and 19.9 percent (7/37) had celiac disease. Of the 36 individuals tested, 66.9 percent (21/37) were classified as normal, 29.3 percent (10/36) as having serious kidney illness (CKD) II, and 4.3 percent (2/37) as having end-stage renal failure. The most facing health reported amongst hospitalized individuals remained nausea and vomiting (72.5 percent; 5/7), fever (57.1 percent; 4/7), cough (42.8 percent; 3/7), sore throat (42.8 percent; 3/7), stomach discomfort (42.8 percent; 3/7), and dyspnea (42. percent; 3/7). Diabetic ketoacidosis (71.4 percent; 5/7) was the most prevalent cause for hospitalization, followed by bacterial pneumonia (14.3 percent; 1/7), fever (14.3 percent; 1/7), sore throat (14.3 percent; 1/7), severe hyperglycemia (14.3 percent; 1/7), and COVID-19 pneumonia (14.3 percent; 1/7). Excluding for harshness of COVID-19 (p 14 0.0001), no demographic or medical indicators revealed statistically substantial changes between patients needing hospitalization also those who could be isolated at home.

Conclusion: The popular of COVID-19 T1D individuals healed at home without conservative treatment. The most prevalent cause for admission was diabetic ketoacidosis.

Open Access Review Article

Updates in the Epidemiology of Fatty Liver and its Consequences in Saudi Arabia: A Review

Badriah Mohammed Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46B36387

The occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has exponentially increased worldwide. A considerable majority of cases advance to non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the nonexistence of therapeutic measures, which increases morbidity and death. Because the initial phases of the illness are frequently clinically unapparent, the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease frequently rests on biochemical and radiographic studies. Concentrated life modifications that result in weight loss are the mainstay of the disease's management. Therapeutic treatments that could be additional to lifestyle changes once essential for case managing comprise insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, incretin-based pharmaceuticals, cholesterol depressing mediators, weight reduction therapies, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation. For non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to be managed more effectively and lessen its worldwide impact, research must be conducted continuously.

Open Access Review Article

Nanoparticles Loaded Mucoadhesive Buccal Patches - Review

M. Sabareesh, P. Suma, M. Venkata Ravi, Anna Balaji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46B36388

Drug distribution for both local and systemic conditions is significantly facilitated by buccal methods of administration. When a rapid beginning of action is necessary, they have proven to be a potent substitute for the conventional oral route, the buccal route is regarded as patient-friendly. Although many procedures have been explored, drug permeability and regulated drug release via this route of delivery remain concerns for the effective therapy. They have shown to be an effective alternative to the traditional oral route, especially when fast onset of action is required. The buccal route is considered patient friendly due to its non-invasive nature and ease of administration. Nanotechnology has advanced to the point that clinical uses have been considered. The use of nanoparticles in buccal dosage forms not only provides efficient distribution but also lowers biological system side effects. Many methods for loading and delivering drug-loaded nanoparticles to the buccal mucosa have been proposed, both for topical and systemic administration. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview of the nanotechnological methods that have been so far developed to enhance the buccal administration of medications.