Open Access Clinical Practice Article

Evaluation of Disease-related Characteristics in COVID-19 Infected Population of Karachi, Pakistan: An Online Survey

Aisha Aziz, Marium Sarfaraz, Saba Majeed, Madiha Maboos, Qurratul Ain Leghari, Mahrukh Khurshid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36347

Aims: COVID-19 pandemic brought the medical community into action, to introduce safe and effective strategies to combat the disease. Pakistan has also experienced a significant increase in COVID-positive cases. The objective of this study is to assess the disease-related characteristics and evaluate different treatment responses in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Data was collected from January to September 2021.

Methodology: An online survey was circulated and analyzed using SPSS and results were reported as frequency and percentages. 1000 questionnaires were distributed, of which 257 responses were received.

Results: The majority of the population 90.3% survived however, a few 9.7% deaths were reported. Fever (65.7%) and cough (53.6%) were the most frequently observed symptoms. Ninety percent (n=230) of the patients required no hospital admission. The results show that 16.3% received anti-viral treatment, mainly Remdesivir. This study will help in assessing the COVID-19 patient’s response to different treatment strategies. It will also provide an insight into the psychological impact of COVID-19.

Conclusion: This study showed encouraging data regarding the disease characteristics of COVID-19 observed in the population.

Open Access Case Report

A Case Report on Recurrent Intestinal Obstruction with Relapsing Klebsiella and Candida Sepsis in a 6 Years Old Patient: A Rare Case Report from South India

K. Shailaja, L. Nissi, S. Sri Vinithra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36341

When the forward movement of intestinal contents is interrupted or impeded by a mechanical reason, it is referred to as an intestinal obstruction. In this case report, a 6-year-old pediatric patient presented with complaints of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and bilious vomiting associated with nausea. In a shorter period, he had undergone two recurrent surgeries for intestinal obstruction and also had two different infections preceding the completion of the two surgeries. This report can give a clear picture that diagnosis serves as a gold standard for designing a pharmacotherapeutic plan to reduce the susceptibility to various pathogenic infections and reduce the length of hospital stay.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Portable Laser Urine Glucose Meter – a Preliminary Investigation

Wafa M. Al-Saleh, Vadivel Masilamani, N. Muniraj Vignesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36338

The most common method of detection/monitoring Diabetic Meletus (DM) is to draw capillary blood and measure pre-prandial or post- prandial glucose level. In addition, HbA1c is often done to measure glycated red blood cell (RBC) to monitor glucose level in blood over a certain period time (about 2 – 3 months). In any case, drawing blood is the only procedure to measure glucose in circulating fluid, blood. It is minimally invasive procedure and with some level of pain and discomfort. Yet, it is indeed an ordeal process of sharp needle pricking the tissue for repeated monitoring, particularly for those who have been diagnosed with Type 1DM and have to maintain strict control, The minor discomfort becomes an issue for old persons, infants and juvenile (of Type 1DM). If there could be a procedure and reliable technique to measure and monitor glucose in urine, the whole population of DM, will heave a sigh of relief. Also, if glucose level in urine, for borderline cases could be identified, this will be a major step for mass screening, more importantly for poor villagers of many Asian and African countries. The purpose of this research is to device a portable laser spectrometer for monitoring glucose concentration in urine. It is a preliminary study, done as a proof of concept, to explore the possibilities of reliable, alternative for DM detection technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave Irradiation Technique, a Green Chemistry Approach for Dissolution Enhancement of Lopinavir

Shakeel Memon, Kiran S. Bhise

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36342

Aim: This research was focused on improvement of aqueous solubility of Lopinavir (LPO), Antiretroviral (ART) drug by preparing solid dispersion (SD) through microwave irradiation (MWI) technique as a green chemistry approach.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics, M. C. E. Society’s Allana College of Pharmacy, CIF-SPPU, Pune, between June 2018 and July 2021

Methodology: In MWI different batches of SD were formulated by 32 factorial approach with time of exposure (X1) and power of radiation (X2) as variable quantity and dissolution rate as response (Y1). β-CD was used as hydrophilic carriers. Drug carrier magnitude relation of 1:1 resolve by phase solubility analysis and SD were assessed for drug content, percentage dissolution rate studies, FTIR, XRD, DSC and SEM analysis.

Results: The FTIR, XRD, DSC and SEM studies exhibited no interaction between LPO and excipient. In Physical mixture (PM) it shows less intensity and disappearance of sharp peaks while in SD indicates the conversion of crystalline state of LPO to amorphous state that discovered the dissolution enhancing, so the SD prepared by MWI proved to be a promising approach to increasing the dissolving rate of BCS class II drug LPO.

Conclusion: Hence, from the all analysis studies, it absolutely was evident that factorial batch F1 was the higher. F1 coded batch (LPO: β-CD within the magnitude relation of 1:1 with time of exposure (4 min) and power of radiation (300 Watt), shows 07 folds increase i.e. 84% compared with drug discharged inside 60 min to plane LPO and SD i.e. 12 % only and 84% respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Grip Strength and Pen Pressure in Handwriting Performance among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in India

U. Ganapathy Sankar, R. Monisha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36343

Handwriting difficulties were predominant among children with developmental coordination disorder. Poor muscle strength and pressure exerted by pen were factors assessed by the clinicians and they play a role in determining the handwriting efficiency. There is no empirical evidence on the handwriting efficiency and the factors associated with it for Indian children with developmental coordination disorder. The study aims in evaluating the grip strength and pen pressure in handwriting performance among children with developmental coordination disorder. Ten children of age group 5-10 years with developmental coordination disorder were compared with typically developing children. Hand dynamometers were used in evaluating the palmar and tripod grip strength. Handwriting task was compared between the typically developing children and Developmental coordination disorder children and the results of the study assured that there was no significant difference documented in the hand dynamometer measures of grip strength. DCD children exhibit less pressure on writing surface as compared to typically developing peer group children. There was no correlation between grip strength and pen pressure over handwriting efficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder. Clinicians should create awareness on the importance of enhancing handwriting skill among children with developmental coordination disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ceftriaxone Injectables: An In vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity and Comparative Efficacy

Muhammad Ijaz-Ul-Haq, Sumayya Zaheer, Reem Altaf, Umair Ilyas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36344

Aims: The objective of the current study was to compare the In Vitro efficacy of regionally produced brands of ceftriaxone with that of the global innovator brand. Therefore, a fact-based conclusion at the end of the study will serve to dispel any uncertainty regarding the efficacy of medications produced locally, whether they are inferior or equal in their comparative activity.

Study Design:  This study was In Vitro Lab based study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in Riphah International University, Department of Pharmacy from July 2021 to August 2021.

Methodology: Five regional brands and one international parent brand (Rocephin) were chosen. The multinational product was regarded as the standard. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aurogenosa were the four bacterial strains against which activities were tested. Antibiotics' zone of inhibition was measured using the agar well method, and their minimum inhibitory concentration was identified using the broth dilution method.

Results: All tested brands showed effectiveness against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aurogenosa.Some of the brands at some point showed more In Vitro efficacy than the standard brand.

Conclusion: Health care professionals can be confident in prescribing locally manufactured brands that have equivalent efficacy to their international counterparts based on the findings of the study. Healthcare professionals can suggest the generic brand in population where medicine cost is directly affecting the patients adherence to therapeutic regimen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey Study on Fundus Diagram: The Untended Dexterity

Hussain Ahmed Khaqan, Sabah Eric, Ateeq ur Rehman, Hasnain Muhammad Buksh, Muhammad Ali Haider, Aamna Jabran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36345

Aims: The objective of this survey was to evaluate how routinely and efficiently the skill of fundus drawing is practiced among retinal specialists.

Fundus drawing is an invariably accepted evidence worldwide for documenting various retinal disorders.

Methods: A self-administered online questionnaire was circulated among various ophthalmologists. Potential participants were vitreo retinal surgeons and those ophthalmologists who work in a vitreo retinal department within Asia, United Kingdom and USA. The                   respondents were asked to mark either “YES” or “NO” for the given questions through google survey form.

Results: Responses were obtained from 68 ophthalmologists in total out of which 57(83.82%) were retinal surgeons and 11(16.18%) were not. 32 (46.38%) admitted drawing fundus diagrams in their routine practice whereas, significantly 37 (53.62%) were not practicing it routinely. 45(66.18%) confessed that they draw single colored fundus drawings of retinal patients and 23(33.82%) did not.

Conclusion: Regrettably, a large number of ophthalmologists according to our survey seem to be unenlightened with the imperative requirement of a fundus diagram in order to document various retinal pathologies in vitreo retinal patients, despite the fact that this skill has been considered mandatory in routine clinical practice of ophthalmologists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Liver Lesions Biopsy with Atypical Malignancies- An Alternative to Radiological Biopsy

Zain Majid, Adeel Urrehman, Shoaib Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Mazoor ul Haq, Rani Tulsi, Asha Devi, Nasir Mehmood, Nishat Akbar, Nasir Hassan Luck, Mohammad Mubarak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44B36346

Background: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is gaining attraction as an alternative method of obtaining biopsies. It offers a more targeted approach for focal lesions in liver especially for those areas which are accessible via EUS-guided method.

Materials and Methods: A total of 8 patients underwent EUS-guided liver lesions biopsies (LLB). EUS Guided LLB was performed using the 22G FNA needle, 2 passes were done with slow pull technique over one minute with 10–15 strokes done in each pass to obtained core samples. The average duration of the procedures ranged from 15–30 minutes.

Results: Out of 8 patients, majority were males. Most of these patients had presented with nonspecific signs and symptoms including weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice etc. All of the 8 patients had an atypical liver lesions on initial radiological evaluation with inconclusive tumour markers and atypical CT radiological findings. Screening for Hepatitis B and C virus were negative in all of them. EUS guided biopsy performed in them revealed the following diagnosis: well differentiated adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumour, smooth muscle tumour, metastatic adenocarcinoma, lymphoproliferative disorder and malignant melanoma.

Conclusions: EUS-guided LLB is an alternative new technique for biopsy of liver lesions with suspected atypical malignancies.