Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Ivermectin and Non Ivermectin Based Regimen for COVID-19 in Abuja: Effects on Virus Clearance, Days-to-discharge and Mortality

Y. Thairu, O. E. Babalola, A. A. Ajayi, Y. Ndanusa, J. O. Ogedengbe, Omede O.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36328

Aim: To compare outcomes from ivermectin (IVM) - and non-ivermectin (NIVM)-based treatments for COVID-19 in Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: Sixty-one consecutive virology-proven cases were recruited and managed with IVM-based regimes. A subsequent cohort of 26 patients was treated with NIVM due to physician preference, with varying combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir (Alluvia), remdesivir, azithromycin, and enoxapramin. All patients received zinc sulfate, vitamin C and supportive therapy. Propensity matching was carried out as indicated, and Repeat Measures Analysis of Variance (RMANOVA) allowing for time*treatment interaction was carried out for time dependent variables, deriving Likelihood Ratio (LR) and P values.

Main Outcome Measures: Change in cycle threshold (viral load) over time, positivity status by day 5, improvement in clinical status using myalgia scores, days to discharge (DTD), change in SpO2 and death.

Results: IVM was associated with a greater and faster reduction in viral clearance (LR=64.2 p< 0.0001 for the N gene): 31% and 95% were negative by days 5 and 14, respectively, versus 0% on NIVM. The mean DTD on IVM was 8.8 days versus 19.4 days, p< 0.0001. IVM proved significantly superior for Myalgia scores, LR= 23.45, P=0.0007. The mortality rate was 0/61 (0%) in IVM but 4/26 (15.3%) in NIVM. Three of the 4 deaths were in females, and 2 had been vaccinated, one fully. The SP02% increased significantly more on IVM (p < 0.0001 RMANOVA) than the NIVM group. C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels dropped significantly more sharply during IVM (P= 0.0068, 0.063), suggesting anti-inflammatory and antifibrinolytic activity.

Conclusions: The IVM-based regimen caused earlier discharge from treatment and reduced mortality, in addition to clinical and laboratory improvements. Vaccination did not protect some patients from SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation of Insulinotropic Potential of Herbal Plants for Management of Diabetes

Yousef Ahmed Saleh Haimed, Pankaj Kumar Sharma, Deepak Kumar Jha, Jaya Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36329

The Insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1, which has been proposed as a modern treatment for management of diabetes, is metabolized extremely with the aid of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV. Inhibitors on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV enhance the level of glucagon-like peptide-1, as have elevated glucose tolerance and improved insulin secretion. Recently, incretin-based treatments have end up a beneficial tool to treat diabetic patients, and distinctive research have focused on the identification of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, which includes these of herbal origin.

Aims: This study was aimed to explorations the effect of methanolic extract of plants to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and comparing its inhibitory activities with Diprotin, as a reference standard additionally, this study focuses to the influences of glucagon-like peptide-1secretions which accelerated glucose tolerance and provocation of insulin biosynthesis and secretion on STC-1 cell line.

Study Design: In-vitro model.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of pharmacology, Karnataka College of pharmacy, Bangalore, India, between Jan 2022 to April 2022.

Methodology: The test drug undertaking of different medicinal plants extract of management over diabetes right here we were the methanolic extraction of three plants; “Aegle marmelos, Moringa oleifera, then Syzygium cumini” have been tested in-vitro for dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity and have an impact on of incretin system like glucagon-like peptide-1. An in-vitro assay to measure glucagon-like peptide-1release from cultured murine EEC’s under fatty acid stimulation. dipeptidyl peptidase-IV is involved in the inactivation over glucagon-like peptide-1, a potent Insulinotropic peptide.

Results: The current study underlines up to expectation the extracts inhibits the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and enhances the glucagon-like peptide-1for diabetes. Results established so the extracts on Aegle marmelos, Moringa oleifera, and Syzygium cumini had dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity on 42.57μg/mL, 42.38/mL, and then 41.48μg/mL respectively. Diprotin A confirmed an IC50 virtue on 29.83μg/mL, as is used as positive controls. Similarly, the study additionally demonstrates that on a cellular level of Aegle marmelos, Syzygium cumini potentially stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1secretion, however Moringa oleifera indicate decent rises into glucagon-like peptide-1secretion.

Conclusion: The outcomes assure the inhibitory impact about plants regarding dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, glucagon-like peptide-1secretion, and the main in conformity with stand a novel, efficient and fair strategy for the management on diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness of Digital Dentistry among the Dental Students of Karachi, Pakistan: Cross-Sectional Study

Lubna Memon, Zeeshan Ahsan, Muhammad Faraz, Saman Arif, Bharat Kumar, Irsam Haider

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36330

Aim: To evaluate Knowledge and Awareness of Digital Dentistry among the Dental Students of Karachi, Pakistan.

Study Design: Descriptive Cross-Sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Different dental colleges in Karachi from 15-06-2021 to 1-07-2021.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students from 15-06-2021 to 1-07-2021. The survey instrument was a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the English language. The questionnaire was made up of two parts:

Part I focused on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, including age, gender, education level, name of college, and study year. Part 2 comprises 17 multiple choice questions regarding the knowledge and awareness of digital dentistry. 192 questionnaires were distributed among the respondents via Messenger and WhatsApp groups through Google form by non-probability convenience sampling to the participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Google form was available only for two weeks and repeated.

Results: A total of 192 questionnaires were given to undergraduate students through email and WhatsApp groups, 180 were counted authentic. Among them 117 (65%) were male and 63 (35%) were female as shown in Fig. 1. The frequency and percentage title of government and private undergraduate students is shown in Table 1. Among all participants, 156 respondents were from government dental colleges and 24 were from private dental colleges. Among all the government college students 145 (80.6%) and private college students 21(11.6%) have not used any form of CAD/CAM in their workplace. About 27 (15%) students know the difference between stained and layered crowns. Among all undergraduate students think that waxes 8(4.3%), metals 21 (11.6%), zirconia 61 (33.8%) and about 90 (50%) respondents think that all of the above materials are used in CAD/CAM. Only 19 (10.6%) government students and 3 (1.6%) private students have ever seen a CAD/CAM machine and the remaining students have not seen or don’t know about a CAD/CAM machine. About 90 students (50%) think that digital dentistry plays an important role in future dentistry and only 9 students think that optical spray is used for making a digital impression. The knowledge of CAD/CAM was limited among pre-clinical years of dental students. Although About 50% of the student think that digital dentistry plays an important role in future dentistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chronic Oral Exposure to Overdose of Cough Syrups on Rate of DNA Fragmentation in Liver and Brain of Wistar Rats

Abolanle A. A. Kayode, Omowumi T. Kayode, Auwal A. Mohammad, Great O. Alabi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36332

This study was designed to determine the effect of chronic oral exposure of overdose of cough syrups containing codeine (CSC) and dextromethorphan (DXM) on the rate of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation in the liver and brain of Wistar rats. Forty-five rats divided into 9 groups of 5 rats were used. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg b/w of CSC, and Groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 were treated with the same doses of DXM, respectively for 21 days. Group 9 (control) received distilled water once daily and all the rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment. DNA analysis was done on the harvested liver and brain. Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in the rate of DNA fragmentation of the liver tissues were observed in all the groups treated with the overdose of cough syrups when compared to the control. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of DNA fragmentation of the brain in all the groups treated with cough syrup as compared to the control. The result indicated that overdose of cough syrup may cause suppressed DNA fragmentation of the liver thereby predisposing the organ to dysfunctions and untimely aging.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Neck Circumference and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Cross-sectional Study in Pakistani Population

Faisal Asad, Madiha Moin, . Ubedullah, Saif Ur Rehman, Fasih Ur Rehman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36333

Objective: This study aimed to determine the reliability of neck circumference in comparison to BMI for a measure of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and determine the interaction between neck circumference and the severity of apnea in the Pakistani adult population.

Materials and Methods: A total of 306 subjects, were recruited retrospectively for the cross-sectional research in the Department of Pulmonary Vascular and Sleep Disorders in Dow University Hospital, Karachi. We reviewed the hospital records to evaluate the BMI, neck circumference, and AHI from June 2018 to February 2022 by non-Random Purposive sampling. The patients 1) who were adults with age more than 18 years and 2) patients with obstructive sleep apnea who were diagnosed through the Polysomnography test were included. IBM SPSS statistics 25 was used for data analysis. Statistical significance was considered as a p-value <0.05.

Results:  The average age was 52.3 ± 11.4 years. Results showed that sleep apnea was found to be more prevalent and severe in males than in females. Increased neck circumference is associated with the severity of sleep apnea and is found to be significant in male subjects (p=0.018) but not in females (0.577). The neck circumference and the BMI had a statistically significant relationship among the male group and female group (p=0.006 and p=<0.001) which shows that individually neck circumference is not a significant risk factor to diagnose OSA. In multivariate regression, we found a strong association between obesity (OR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.03-9.38; p-value: 0.00) and males (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.41-3.73; p-value: 0.001) among obstructive sleep apnea patients.

Conclusion:  In conclusion, the individuals who have large neck circumference have raised BMI, and the traditional indicators for instance males, older age, and BMI were associated with OSA but a larger neck circumference as an independent element was not linked to OSA. In addition, the correlation of large necks with OSA is found to be significant in male subjects but not in females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation, Physico-chemical Evaluation and Comparative Stability Studies of Dillenia indica (pulp) based Antidandruff and Anti Hair Fall Cream with Marketed Brand

Kamal Deka, Ramen Kalita, Subhashis Debnath, Satyendra Deka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36335

Background: Dillenia Indica as a medicinal plant is one of the widely used herbs by the various tribes of entire North East (mostly in Assam) and traditionally the jelly like content inside the fruit was used to treat dandruff and falling hairs.

Objectives: The current work was performed with an objective to assess the antidandruff and anti hair fall property of Dillenia indica (pulp), the jelly like content inside the fruit with a marketed brand.

Methods: With utilization of different concentrations of Dillenia indica (pulp) as main drug and with other chemicals different cream formulations are made and optimized. All the formulations along with marketed brand are investigated for their physico-chemical properties. Stability studies of freeze-thaw, elevated temperature exposure and thermal stability study was performed. All the results of the formulations were compared with marketed brand.

Results: All the result of freeze-thaw, elevated temperature exposure and thermal stability study of all formulations (F1,F2,F3) shows similar characteristic behavior with marketed brand except in elevated temperature exposure where all the formulations fails to withstand the temperature excluding the marketed brand (BRYLCREEM). Physico-chemical parameters like pH, FFA, TFM has been studied for formulations F1, F2, F3 and with brand product. All the formulations along with brand product are showing similar kind of result along with similar Spreadability and homogeneity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuromuscular Junction Structural Charactaristics in Familial ALS Mice Model

Hafiz Usman Ghani, Rafi Ullah, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Fawad, Liu Ya Ling

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36336

Introduction: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that can cause motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord and motor cortex. Although most cases of ALS are sporadic, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations are responsible for 10%-20% of familial ALS.

Objective: Studying neuromuscular junctions in various age groups to see how they vary in structure.

Methods:  From male hemizygous carriers (B6SJL-Tg (SOD1-G93A) 1Gur/J) and female B6SJL/F1 hybrids, female G93ASOD1 transgenic mice and age-matched wild-type (WT littermate partners, both were purchased from Jackson) laboratory. The animals were kept in an environment with controlled humidity and temperature, and 12:12h light was performed in a dark schedule, and sterile rodent food and sterile food were provided without specific pathogens.

Results:  WT and SOD1 are present in 40, 60, 90, 120 days of mice Inside the Tibialis anterior of G93ASOD1 mice (TA) and gastrocnemius (GN) construction. The neurofilament heavy polypeptide (tubulin, green) points to the presynaptic end. α-Bungarotoxins (BTX, white) mark the postsynaptic space, and synaptophysin (p38-1, red) is used for synaptic vesicles. In the following research we demonstrate that in 40 days of mice WT and SOD1 neither of them degraded while in 60 days of mice a slight denaturation occur in WT and SOD1 Further in 90 days of mice the degeneration is not serious about 60% to 70%. Furthermore, the deterioration in mice after 90 days is only 60-70 percent significant.

Conclusion: NMJ inervation has appeared Disappearance, loss of motor axons, and huge structural damage to the NMJ at 60 and 90 days. Structural changes in presynaptic and postsynaptic structures and a gradual decrease in synaptic vesicles observe.

Open Access Review Article

Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis: Review

Maha Ayoub

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36334

In atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein B-lipoproteins in blood artery matrix attract monocytes, which become macrophages and dendritic cells. Macrophages generated from recruited monocytes cause a maladaptive, non-resolving inflammatory response that increases subendothelial layer. Some lesions cause myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. Modern atherosclerosis research focuses on the molecular biology of atherogenesis, although the disease's complex pathophysiology is still unknown. The goal of this research is to examine the mechanisms of atherosclerosis development, such as endothelial dysfunction, fatty streak formation, fibrous plaque formation, and plaque rupture (Fig. 1.). This article takes a thorough look at the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, addressing the pathological and biochemical mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque development and growth. Atherosclerosis pathogenesis and disease development are the primary topics of discussion in this review, which focuses on the disease's particular targets.