Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Various Prognostic Factors of Intestinal Anastomotic Leakage

Zeeshan Zia Qureshi, Riffat Jabeen Memon, Bilal Rasool, Sohail Ahmed Memon, Aneeta Kumari, . Mujeeb-ur- Rehman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36283

Objectives: To determine the various prognostic factors of intestinal anastomosis leakage at tertiary care Hospital

Material and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Surgical Units of Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro/Hyderabad. A total 100 patients were included those underwent intestinal anastomosis. After taking detailed history and clinical examination, in the patients’ relevant investigations i.e. Blood CP, X-ray abdomen, Methylene Blue Test (to confirm leaks) and ultrasound of the abdomen. If they remain free of any complication, they were discharged. After collection of data, the analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 26.0

Results: Mean age of the patients was recorded as 51.5+3.5 years and males were found in the majority (76.6%). In the clinical presentation, abdominal pain was the most common (63.6%). Typhoid 75(25.0%) was the most common diagnosis. The pathological sites were found as Ileocolic 180(60.0%). Poor nutritional status was in 60.0% cases. Anaemia was 40%, diabetes 20%, and hypertension 10%. A high steroid dose history was in 10% cases and 6.6% had a history of chemotherapy. Ischemia of the intestine at the suture line was seen in 6%, local sepsis was 20%, obstruction distal to the anastomosis was 6.6%, postoperative early adhesions was 6.6%.

Conclusion: Male gender, poor nutritional status, diabetes, anemia, presence of local sepsis, chemotherapy and high dose steroid were observed highly prevalent and suspected as factors of anastomosis leakage. Furthermore, many efforts need to be made to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates associated with anastomotic leaks.

Open Access Short Communication

A Study on Aromatic Heterocyclic Organic Compounds

Shashank Tiwari, Shreya Talreja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36284

The synthesis of newer and more novel molecules has always been a goal for research in organic chemistry. Heterocyclic compounds are those in which the fundamental compound structure contains an element other than carbon. These molecules may also be aromatic, which means they have a distinct odor. The composition of heterocyclic compounds will be discussed in depth in this study. The paper will also go through the synthesis and application methodologies. The pharmaceutical sector makes substantial use of these chemicals. It is largely employed in histamine and serotonin-related medications in that country. These chemicals are also used in the cosmetics and DNA vaccine industries, as well as in genetic research. Advancements in organic chemistry are allowing for a more thorough investigation of aromatic heterocyclic compounds in order to get a better knowledge of their structural and chemical compatibility with other molecules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Kangaroo Mother Care among Low Birth Weight Newborns at a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

Tayyaba haque Shaikh, Rumana Sangi, Muhammad Saad Raza, Noor UL Ain Shaikh, Saifullah Jamro, Aliya Kemal Ahsan, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36274

Aim: To assess the efficacy of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) among low birth weight neonates at a tertiary care hospital

Study Design: A cross-sectional study

Place and Duration. The Kangaroo mother care ward, CMC Children Hospital, Larkana from August 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: Total 345 low birth weight patients were included. Newborns were kept in KMC position. Axillary temperature was measured during KMC position. Stratification of study variables was done while post-stratification chi-square test or independent sample student t-test was employed to see the impact of effect modifiers on the outcome (efficacy) considering p-value ≤0.05 as significant.

Results: Out of a total of 345 LBW neonates, there were 198 (57.4%) boys and 147 (42.6%) girls. The mean age of neonates was 12.01\(\pm\)7.68 days while majority 177 (51.3%) were aged less than or equal to 10 days. The mean body weight was 1997.22\(\pm\)243.48 grams. The mean gestational age was noted to be 35.35\(\pm\)1.37 weeks. There were 104 (30.1%) neonates who belonged to rural areas while 241 (69.9%) were from urban areas. The mean mother’s temperature was 37.58\(\pm\)0.98 C. The mean room temperature was 33.11\(\pm\)2.59 C. The mean initial temperature was 35.40\(\pm\)0.48 C. The efficacy of KMC was observed to be in 242 (70.1%) cases.

Conclusion: The KMC was found to be effective and useful in caring LBW neonates.  Further advantages of KMC are low cost, promotion of exclusive breast-feeding and increased mother’s confidence in handling LBW babies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Regarding COVID-19 Awareness among Private Dental Practitioners in Karachi

Mohammad Feroz Jahangir, Sajjad Ali Darvesh, Kelash Kumar, Saadia Nazir, Jawaid Sultan, Irum Naz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36279

Objective: Study is to assess knowledge about corona among private dental practitioners in Karachi.     

Study Design: Prospective cross sectional study.

Materials & Methods:  This study is a cross-sectional study conducted during the time period of May, 2020 to Sept, 2020 in Karachi. The online questionnaire was divided into 2 sections, the first one included a biodata section including years of practice and clinic area. The second section comprised of knowledge regarding disinfection techniques against COVID-19 and modes of transmission of COVID-19. There were 10 multiple choice questions to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on different surfaces found in the clinic. Effectiveness of various disinfectants and hand sanitizers was asked and the viability of SARS-CoV-2 on steel surfaces, tissue papers, glass and plastic material.

Results: As our study focuses only private dental practitioners, we contacted them through emails and questionnaires were sent. Responses were received by 125 dentists and 20 dentists did not provide with completely filled questionnaire. Among total of 145 dentists, 67.2% (n=84) were males and 32.8% (n=41) were female practitioners. Amongst 125 dentists, 58.4% (n=73) had adequate knowledge regarding disinfection, viability of virus on different surfaces and proper protective equipment. 33 dentists scored total of 6 out of 10 with only 19 dentists having score of <6. 

Conclusion: The global pandemic of 2019 has led to drastic changes in healthcare setups and way of providing healthcare services. In this study we found that around 60% of dentists have adequate knowledge about disinfection and modes of transmission of COVID-19. Private dental practitioners need to take adequate protective measures and disinfection techniques to prevent transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and In Silico Characterization of Defensin Genes from Some Indigenous Plant Species of Pakistan

M. Aslam, F. Hussain, N. Ahmed, A. Jamil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36280

Aims: Damage of crop plants due to pathogenic attacks, postharvest crops spoilage and lethal effects of chemical pesticides has enforced scientists to find some potential natural alternative. Plants produce different types of antimicrobial peptides including defensins in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Defensins are small cysteine rich, cationic peptide with 40-45 amino acid residues with a variety of biological activities. Hence defensins have pharmaceutical and agricultural significance especially wide range of antifungal activities.

Methodology: Nine plant species viz Brassica napus, Brassica nigra, Conyza bonariensis, Alhagi marorum, Sonchus arvensis, Brassica compestris, Eruca sativa, Cirsium arvensis and Brassica juncea were selected for the study. Four set of primers were applied on extracted genomic DNAs and four amplified genes were isolated from different plants species by PCR. The amplified genes were cloned via pTZ57R/T in E.coli. The cloned fragments were sequenced and characterized by different bioinformatics tool such as coding length and peptide sequence, site of cell aggregation, peptide physico-chemical properties, antimicrobial properties and gene expression pattern.

Result: The amplified products from B. napus, B. nigra, B. compestris, E. sativa and B. juncea were about 330 bp in length and showed upto 85% nucleotide homology to the reported defensins. Deduced amino acid sequence from Bn-Def, Es-Def Bj-Def and Bc- Def showed the conserved defensin domain. These sequences were also characterized for different characteristic like charged amino acids, pI value, shelflife and stability.  Sonchus arvensis didn’t give any specific product by prescribed set of primers. However the products from Alhagi marorum was about 770 bp and B. napus was of 270 bp but both give homology below 30%.

Conclusion: This study showed that in silico characterization of deduced antimicrobial peptides from different plant species has depicted these as an effective alternative to communal therapeutics. However, further work is needed to verify defensins specific activity at protein level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals Analysis in Callus, Tissue Cultured and Conventionally Propagated Plant Roots, and Cell Culture of Plumbago indica L.

H. A. S. A. Priyanjani, W. T. P. S. K. Senarath, M. L. A. M. S. Munasinghe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36282

Aims: Plumbago indica L. commonly known as rose-coloured leadwort in English is widely used in the treatment of rheumatism, paralysis, leprosy, headache, leukoderma, enlarged glands, scorpion-sting, cancer, ophthalmia, secondary syphilis, dyspepsia, haemorrhage, piles, flatulence and loss of appetite etc. in traditional medicinal systems. Plumbagin is one of the major phytochemicals that is responsible for most of the above biological activities of P. indica. This plant is gradually decreasing from its natural habitats due to over exploitation for medicinal purposes. The use of tissue culture plants for mass scale cultivation and phytochemical extraction can protect P. indica that grows in the natural environment. The development of cell culture allows extracting plumbagin without growing plants in the field.  

Study Design: Quantitative and qualitative comparison of phytochemicals in tissue cultured and conventionally propagated P. indica plant roots and callus was done using HPLC and GC-MS analysis.

Methodology: The amount of plumbagin present in eight months old field-grown tissue cultured and conventionally propagated (shoot cutting) plant roots, callus, and cell culture were quantified by HPLC analysis and phytochemicals were identified qualitatively using GC-MS analysis.

Results: Conventionally propagated plant root extract had the highest plumbagin content 23.53 \(\pm\)5.34 \(\mu g\)/mL when compared with tissue cultured plant roots (12.90 \(\pm\)2.42 \(\mu g\)/mL), callus (0.009 µg/mL), cell culture pellet (0.015 \(\pm\)0.01 \(\mu g\)/mL) and cell culture supernatant extract (4.23 \(\pm\)2.07 \(\mu g\)/mL). The GC-MS analysis revealed that conventionally propagated plant root extract contained a higher number of phytochemicals (16) while tissue cultured plant roots contained only four. Callus extract contained only n-Hexadecanoic acid. Nine phytochemicals were detected in cell culture pellet extract while only three phytochemicals were detected in the supernatant.

Conclusion: Tissue cultured P. indica roots can be also used as a source to extract plumbagin in mass scale, yet conditions need to be optimized in order to produce high level of plumbagin. The study confirmed not only the possibility of obtaining plumbagin through cell cultures in a bioreactor system but also products that are mainly secreted into the medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association among Cancer in Family History and Psychosocial Stress

Umar Waheed, Sajid Hussain, Nabila Khalid, Amber Salman, Uzma Ali, Fatima Maham Iqtidar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36285

Aim: The purpose of this study is to look at the link among a family history of cancer, coping style, also emotional suffering.

Methods: The self-reporting questionnaire, coping style scale, also effect of occasion scale-revised were also used to assess 85 individuals through the family history of cancer also 74 normal patients.

Results: There have been substantial variations in nervousness, despair, cancer-exact distress, and psychological adjustment here between two groups of patients. Psychological discomfort (anxiety, sadness, and cancer-specific distress) was regarded as a negative coping style and the family history of cancer. In the family history and psychological discomfort, an undesirable coping style served as an intermediate.

Conclusion: People through the family history of cancer are now extra probable to have a negative coping style, which predisposes them to more severe psychological discomfort.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Alopecia: Disease and Characterstics, Clinical Evaluation, Psychological Impact & Available Treatment Options

Shumaila Sheikh, Sadaf Ibrahim, Uzma Shahid, Noorulain Pirzada, Abid Khan, Omer Ahmed Shaikh, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Ayaz Ali Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i41B36286

Alopecia Areata (AA) is a frequent recurrent dermatological autoimmune illness that causes patchy regions of hair loss on the scalp and/or body. It can afflict people of any age or skin type, and it affects both men and women. It is necessary to develop new diagnostic procedures. Scalp dermatoscopy is a potential new technique for diagnosing scalp and hair diseases that may be difficult to diagnose otherwise. In adults, high-potency topical corticosteroids (TCs) such as 0.05 percent clobetasol propionate in different formulations or 0.25 percent desoximetasone cream are often used, with response rates of around 47 percent and 60%, respectively. Individuals with stable conditions can benefit from CI therapy provided at home, which can be just as safe and effective as CI therapy administered in a clinic setting.