Open Access Original Research Article

Expertise and Insights of Dentists Perceiving Sign Language

. Rehmatullah, Maham Shah, Khalida Naz, Shanti Chouhan, Shuja Aslam, Asad Tahir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36202

Dental consideration to the weak populace is a forthcoming issue in well-being approaches because of the absence of proper and particular techniques. Patients with tangible deficiencies pose the problem to experts in anticipation of oral sicknesses generally because of correspondence issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity Occurrence among Female Students

Hassanat Elbashir Mohammed Mustafa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36204

Aims: The study was conducted to assess the risk factors leading to the development of obesity among female students to adopt strategies to combat this problem and decrease the risk.

 Methodology A cross-sectional study method was conducted among 129 participants at the University in 2017. Stratified proportional random sampling was taken. The electronic questionnaire and body mass index (BMI) observational checklist were used for consented participants who agreed to participate in the study

Results: Descriptive statistics, the Chi-Square, and T-test were used. The studied subject’s ages range from 18> to 25yers, most of them were single (93%), and their economic status was moderate. Most of the participants consumed unhealthy diets rich in carbohydrates, and fat. Also, more than 60 % of participants consumed low vegetables and fruits. Chi squire showed insignificantly overweight among low fruit consumers while the obesity among moderate fruit consumers (p-value 0.813).

Conclusion: This study explored the occurrence of both overweight and obesity were strongly associated with risky lifestyles for participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Immunoglobulin Y Tablets on Streptococcus Mutans Counts in Adolescents: An in vivo Study

Poonam Singla, Abi M. Thomas, Kapil K. Dua, Ruchika Kundra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36205

Objectives: Streptococcus mutans has been most intimately associated with the initiation and development of carious lesion. Nowadays, the treatment strategies are aimed at either elimination of this bacterium or suppression of its virulence. The search for more efficient and economical techniques, has led to growing interest for the use of egg yolk antibodies (Immunoglobulin Y). This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological effect of Ig Y tablets on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in adolescents.

Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 50 adolescents (12–18 years old) were divided into two groups. Group I adolescents were instructed to use fluoridated toothpaste and Group II were instructed to administer S. Mutans specific Immunoglobulin Y chewable tablets for a period of 15 days along with the fluoridated toothpaste.

Results: The findings of this research demonstrated that the tablets containing specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against glucosyltransferase of S. mutans exerted a suppressive effect on S. mutans colonization of the oral cavity in healthy adolescents.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that using IgY in the form of tablets is a novel approach and has the advantage of releasing antibodies slowly into the oral cavity. It is thus effective in decreasing the colonization of the S. mutans, and lowering the induction of dental caries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forced Degradation Behaviour with a Developed and Validated RP-UPLC Method for Estimation Lamivudine and Dolutegravir in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Subramaniam Ananda Thangadurai, Dhanabalan Kamalakannan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36206

A simple, fast, precise, specific, and accurate reversed phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic (UPLC) method was developed and validated for the forced degradation studies of the Lamivudine and Dolutegravir in tablet dosage form. Chromatogram was run HSS C18 (2.6 x 50mm, 1.6µm). Mobile phases containing 70% 0.01N disodium hydrogen phosphate: 30% Methanol). The elution of analytes was achieved with a flow rate at 0.3 mL/min. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate was used as a buffer in this experiment. Temperature was maintained at 30°C. Optimized wavelength selected at 260nm. The detector response was linear in the concentration range of 25-150μg/mL respectively. Retention time of Lamivudine and Dolutegravir were found to be 1.408min and 1.739min. %RSD of the Lamivudine and Dolutegravir were and found to be 0.8 and 0.8. The % recovery was obtained as 100.39% and 100.37% for Lamivudine and Dolutegravir. LOD, LOQ values obtained from regression equations of Lamivudine and Dolutegravir were 0.41, 1.25 and 0.09, 0.26. Regression equation of Lamivudine was y = 24270x + 12218 and for Dolutegravir was y = 34783x + 1060. Since retention times and run times were reduced, the method established was easy and premium and it could be used in periodic quality control tests in industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Direct Acting Anti-Viral Agents in Patients Infected with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus: A Single Center Experience

Salman Ahsam, Sanjay Kirshan Kumar, Khadim Hussain Semejo, Ghulamullah Lail, Farina Hanif, Nasir Hassan Luck

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36207

Background: Hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection is affecting millions of people globally with an estimated prevalence in Pakistan ranging from 4.5 to 8%. Advent of oral direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in combination therapy has made possible the treatment of decompensated cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Therefore, this study focused to evaluate safety and efficacy of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) in compensated and decompensated cirrhotic patients.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, from 1st September 2017 to 30th June 2018. Patients diagnosed with HCV, presenting in outpatient department were enrolled. All patients received Daclatasavir, Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin combination. Patient without cirrhosis and with cirrhosis received treatment for 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. End of treatment response was taken as primary end point. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Out of 180 patients, 88(48.9%) were male and 92(51.1%) were female, with mean age of 44.59±11.29 years. Majority had genotype 3 i.e., 145(80.6%). In this study population, 97(53.9%) patients were non-cirrhotic and received 3 months treatment while 83(46.1%) cirrhotic patient got 6 months treatment. Post- stratification observed that young patients have better treatment response rate than older individuals (p-=0.031) On the other hand, statistical insignificant association was observed between end of treatment response with regards to gender, duration of treatment, history of hepatic encephalopathy and ascites.

Conclusion: This study concluded that treatment with direct antiviral agents of Hepatitis C virus related chronic liver disease is effectual and has shown equivalent response in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. Age is an important factor affecting treatment response i.e, better response achieved in patient with less than 45 years. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Bacteriological Profile of Urine and Stent Culture among Patients with Ureteric Double J Stent

Niaz Soomro, Hira Anis Bumbia, . Abdullah, . Sajan, Atif Javed, Ahmed Fawad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36208


Background: A common indication in urological pathologies and especially in instances of ureteric calculi/obstruction, is the placement of ureteric catheter such as the double J stent. 76% of patient with double J stent may encounter adverse outcome owing to bacterial colonization of their stents. Though antibiotic administration may help counter the situation, the implicated microorganisms are hard to determine. One may suggest that a urine culture may offer insight into the matter, however, little is known how bacteriology of the urine and stent culture resemble and thus a comparative analysis is much needed.

Objective: To compare the bacteriologic profile of urine and stent culture to determine the incidence and etiology of bacteriuria among patients with ureteric double J stent.

Methodology: This cross-sectional analysis, was conducted upon a sample of 219 patients (of either gender, aged 10 to 70 years) presenting for ureteric double J stent removal from June 2021 to February 2022 at Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi. After taking written informed consent, data was recorded onto a pre-structured questionnaire containing inquiries pertaining to basic biodata, sociodemographic details, bacteriological profiles of the urine and ureteric double J stent culture. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS v. 21.0.

Results: Among the sample 51.6% of the patients were males, while the remaining 48.4% were females. The mean age of the sample stood at 38 (SD ± 9.1). The total incidence of bacterial colonization was seen in 61.64% and 19.6% of stent and urine cultures respectively, with Enterococci being the commonest (54.8%) organism in stent culture and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa being the commonest (32.6%) in urine culture.

Conclusion: After careful consideration, it can be concluded that the incidence of bacterial colonization among both cultures, in addition to the detailed bacteriological profiles of urine and ureteric double J stent culture differ considerably and urine culture may not serve as an ideal indicator of stent colonization and antibiotic prophylaxis should continue to be practiced among symptomatic patients despite a sterile urine culture.


Open Access Original Research Article

Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Paediatric Age Group and Recurrent Abdominal Pain

Maria Khalid, Sadaf Liaqat, Sajid Hussain Sherazi, Rabeya Rehman, Rabia Nisar, Hassan Wajahat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36209


Background: The term ‘recurrent abdominal pain’ or RAP is defined in terms of duration and frequency of pain. The duration is to be defined as: minimum preceding three months, and over this three-month period, minimum3 episodes of pain having severe intensity causing impairment to perform the daily activities by the affected patients. Over many years, more and more organic causes have been identified because of various advances and better knowledge as well as better investigations tools.  The commonest cause of RAP in paediatric age group is found to be H. Pylori infection and it is also treatable.

Objective: To find out helicobacter pylori infection frequency in paediatric age group with recurrent abdominal pain.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Hospital:  Pediatrics, DHQ teaching hospital Sargodha from 10th June 2018 to 9th December 2018.

Methodology: One hundred children with recurrent abdominal pain were selected using non probability consecutive sampling. H. Pylori serology was done and results presented.

Results: The mean age was 7.28±2.6 years. H. pylori infection was seen in 27%. More patients belonged to middle socio economic status.

Conclusion: Recurrent abdominal pain in paediatric age group is caused commonly by H. pylori infection and it is easily treatable if detected in early stages.


Open Access Review Article

Parkinson’s Disease: A Review on Ongentys®

Farman Ahmad, Hanfia Manazir, Raghvendra Misra, Anurag Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37B36203

Aim: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an auto neuro-degenerative disease/disorder, mainly affects voluntary movements and behavioral functions in the elderliness. Previous studies narrated various aspects of Parkinson’s disease but they could not explain the Parkinson’s disease along with the Off-episode state and its management by using ongentys. In this review paper authors elaborately and comprehensively explained about Off-episode condition and its management by using Ongentys medicine.

Main body: In 25-50% population of Patient with PD it is found that they have developed OFF-Episode (Wearing-OFF) phenomenon in the first two years of treatment and after 10 years most of the patients were with off-episode condition. In this condition due to various known and unknown reasons medications used for PD are become ineffective between dose regimens that enable the symptoms of PD before next dose of Levodopa. To overcome this condition various medications are available in the market like- Entacapone, Tolcapone etc. A new approach has been developed for managing Off-episode problem in the PD patients i.e. Opicapone (Ongentys®). Opicapone is COMT [Catechol-O-methyltransferase]: enzyme inhibitor, which prevents the degradation of Levodopa peripherally. COMT enzyme metabolizes Levodopa into 3-O-methyldopa by methylation reaction peripherally as well as in the CNS region. Ongentys is used as a adjunctive with levodopa/carbidopa formulations and administered at bedtime only.

Conclusion: In this review authors mainly focus on the Ongentys® and its utilization in the management of off-episode state in PD patients. Authors also cover little bit about sign and symptoms, diagnostic tools, epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease and drugs which may be used for the treatment of PD.