Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and Arginase by a Dietary Supplement and Its Potential for Improving Quality of Life Factors in Adults

Brett J. West, Fernando Swartz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36193

Aim: Somatopause is the progressive and age-related decline of growth hormone (GH) production due to changes in hypothalamic-pituitary axis signaling and results in typical physiological changes associated with the aging process. The purpose of our study was to investigate the anti-aging potential of several botanical ingredients, including noni fruit juice, as well as a dietary supplement formulation.

Methodology: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) influences hypothalamic-pituitary axis signaling and reduces GH production and secretion. Since DPP-4 concentrations increase with age, we evaluated the ability of several botanical ingredients to inhibit DPP-4 activity in vitro. We subsequently formulated an anti-aging dietary supplement with this blend of botanical ingredients by adding amino acids (L-arginine, L-Lysine, citrulline and beta-alanine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), flax seed oil and several nutrients. The supplement was evaluated for anti-arginase activity in vitro, as the expression of this enzyme also increases with age. The dietary supplement was also consumed by three men and one woman, ages 56 to 62, with relevant but disparate medical histories. Following short-term ingestion of the supplement, these volunteers were interviewed to ascertain any changes in health status.

Results: We discovered that a blend of the botanical ingredients synergistically inhibited DPP-4 in vitro by up to approximately 99%. A concentration-dependent reduction in arginase activity was also observed for the anti-aging dietary supplement. Further, all volunteers reported positive improvements in at least one quality of life factor, which included more restful sleep, reduced musculoskeletal discomfort, increased energy, improved physical stamina and better skin quality.

Conclusion: These initial findings suggest that the anti-aging dietary supplement can mitigate declines in quality of life associated with aging by reducing DPP-4 and arginase activities, thereby supporting healthy GH production and endothelial nitric oxide production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dyslipidemia is an Independent Predictor of Rapid Progressive Disease in Patientswith Chronic Liver Disease

Muhammad Yahya Memon, Gohar Ali, Syeda Iffat Bukhari, Nabiya Sandeelo, Haris Alvi, Abu Talib, Paras Imran, Imtiaz Baloch, Syed Zulfiquar Ali Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36194

Introduction: In chronic liver disease (CLD), the lipid profile biomarkers are altered because of decreased lipoprotein biosynthetic capacity.

Objectives: To identify the association of dyslipidemia with various characteristics in chronic liver disease patients.

Patients and meth­ods:  This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Civil Hospital, Karachi. The study was conducted between 1st July to 31st December 2017. A total of 211 adults with chronic liver disease were included in the study.

Data regarding age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of CLD, family history of dyslipidemia, and severity of cirrhosis were obtained.  A 5ml fasting (12-14 hours) venous blood was collected and sent to the laboratory forthe measurement of lipid profiles. Dyslipidemia was established based the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) guidelines and definition. 

Results: The mean age of the study patients was 43.16(8.63) years. The majority of the subjects were males (57.3%). The mean duration of CLD in years was 5.21(2.32). The prevalence of dyslipidemia was found to be 76.3%. Dyslipidemia was prevalent among patients of the age group > 45 years and male gender. Variables including age, gender, income, duration of CLD and family history of dyslipidemia showed significant association with dyslipidemia.  In the multivariable stage analysis, the only retained significant variables are gender and family history of dyslipidemia. 

Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia among chronic liver disease patients was high. Various characteristics of the CLD patients were found to be significantly associated with dyslipidemia and identified as potential risk factors for its development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Investigation of Anti-obesity Effect of Cyperus Rotundus

Rita Yadav, Munesh Mani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36195

According to WHO, obesity is a not unusual place fitness ailment of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism that consequences from immoderate fats accumulation in adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle etc. This research was focused on the development and Investigation of Anti-Obesity effect of Cyperus Rotundus in obese rats. The plant- Nagarmotha was collected from Moradabad region and authenticated by the botanist. Firstly, the calibration curve was plotted. Animals were obtained from the animal house maintained at Faculty of Pharmacy, IFTM University, Moradabad, IN. Animals were free to access pellet chow diet and water ad libitum. They were kept as per CPCSEA Guidelines for one week and kept on fasting for 24 hours prior sacrificing the rodents. The rats were divided into 6 groups, each containing 6 animals. It includes Group 1: Normal Diet Control, Group 2: High caloric Diet control (HCD), Group 3: HCD + Orlistat (5 mg/kg), Group 4: HCD + EEN (100 mg/kg), Group 5: HCD+ EEN (200 mg/kg and Group 6: HCD + EEN (300 mg/kg). Each rat was evaluated after the continuous treatments for different parameters such as body weight & food intake, Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC), blood glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance test, histopathological studies for adipose tissue and liver, RNA Extraction and Semi-Quantitative PCR Analysis and liver and kidney functions test. In results, Ethanolic Extract of Nagarmotha (EEN) at all the three doses- 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg significantly exhibited lipid lowering effects when compared to standard group treated with Orlistat and control or high calories diet animals, in all the parameters. The effects were observed in dose-dependent manner, in ascending order with increase in dose. In conclusion, it may be said that EEN is a potential anti-lipidemic agent. This research suggests to characterize and isolate the main moiety responsible for its pharmacological activity (as anti-obesity) and confirm the mode of action- at which receptor subtype binding occurs.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Expression of Sox2 and Oct4 in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Immunohistochemical Study

Rutuja G. Vidhale, Treville Pereira, Megha N. Lalai, A.K. Anjali, Apeksha Jain, Christina Pereira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36197

Background: These stemness markers have proved their ability in tumorigenicity, tumor metastasis, and even distant recurrence after chemotherapy in different types of cancer. Also, it has shown its evidence in pre-malignant conditions such as OSMF (Oral Submucous Fibrosis) did show the presence of stem cell markers such as Sox2 and Oct4.

 Aim: Establishing the relationship of Sox2 and Oct4 markers with a potentially malignant disorder, OSMF. Correlation between the said markers and the clinical and histopathological classification.

Materials and Methods: 40 archival tissue samples of OSMF were clinically and histopathologically classified using Khanna and Andrade classification. Immunohistochemical analysis for Sox2 and Oct4 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections on 20 histopathologically confirmed cases of oral submucous fibrosis each.

Results: The resulting data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20.0. The significance of the parameters was tested by the Pearson's Chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant). The immunohistochemical results showed that Sox2 and Oct4 could be detected in the basal and suprabasal layers in OSMF. Although no significant difference was noted in the expression of Sox2 and Oct4 with increasing grades of oral submucous fibrosis

Conclusion: The results obtained from this study show a contingency between the Sox2 and Oct4 marker with OSMF. These results need to be further investigated and further verified with the inclusion of a greater number of cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Raised Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

Chandra Madhudas, Farkhunda Khursheed, Zakia Zaheen, Ilsa Nadeem, Rabia Wasi, Rashida Akbar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36198

Objective: To determine the association between raised serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Material and Methods: This case control study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at Liaquat University of Medical and health Sciences Jamshoro, Hyderabad, for a period of six months from July 2021 to December 2021. All the pregnancy hypertensive disorder women as cases and normotensive women as control of ages between 18 and 45 years with gestational age >28 weeks, irrespective of parity and booking stratus were included. Under aseptic conditions, from each woman of both groups around a 2 ml venous blood sample was taken (before treatment) for the assessment of serum LDH levels. Serum LDH levels more than 280 U/L was considered as raised. All the informations were noted on predesigned proforma by the researcher herself. SPSS version 26 was used for the data analysis.

Results: A total of 100 cases were included, particularly 50 women having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and 50 normotensive pregnant women were studied. The overall mean age of the female’s was 25.76+5.39 years and average BMI was 32.7+2.02 kg/m2. Out of all 65.0% were primiparous. Most of the females 76.0% were poor socioeconomically. LDH was raised among 62.0% of the women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and it was normal among all normotensive pregnant women. Average serum LDH level was significantly higher in cases as compared to the controls (0.001).

Conclusion: Raised serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was observed to be significantly linked to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Careful monitoring of serum LDH concentrations during pregnancy in high-risk cases may play a role in early detection and treatment to decrease the morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study in Hematological Parameters between First Wave Vs Second wave in ICU and non- ICU COVID-19 Patients in India

U. Sunderesh Kamal Chander, M. Vanishree, Sonti Sulochana, E. Yogalakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36199

Aim: This study aims to determine similarities and differences in haematological                            parameters between the patients from two waves of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection at the time of hospital admission and identify risk biomarkers of COVID19 severity.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Place of Study: The study was carried out in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: A total of 300 patients with COVID-19 infection, consisting of 150 patients from the first wave (April to June 2020) and 150 patients from the second wave (March to May, 20) were considered for this study. The hematological parameters of the patients were examined. Of the sample population from the first wave, 131 were admitted to the non-intensive care unit, and 19 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Of the sample population selected from the second wave, 101 were admitted to the non-intensive care unit and 49 were admitted to the intensive care unit. Statistical analysis of the data for both waves was carried out, and relevant findings were presented.

Results: Haematological parameters data were compared between the COVID19 positive patients admitted to ICU and non- ICU across both infection waves. On gender distribution, males were more than females in both waves. Degree of freedom analyses revealed an association of hematological parameters with the subsequent illness progression and severity in both the waves.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the severity of the disease was more in the second wave, especially among ICU patients than in the first wave. The majority of the infected patients were males in both waves. However, the presence of comorbidities, immune response, the severity of the infection, and other risk factors determines the progression of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Tranexamic Acid with GCS in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

Kamil Ziad, Inayat Ali Khan, Lal Shehbaz, Santosh Kumar Sidhwani, Bina Fawad, Ariba Fahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36200

Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs due to head injury ranging from simple blow to penetrating injury. TBI refers to a violently produced brain damage that is either blunting or piercing that accelerates or decelerates, resulting in the development of various clinical signs and symptoms such as loss of consciousness or lowered awareness level, entire or partial loss of memory, and various neurological or neuropsychological abnormalities, all of which can lead to disability or death. . As a result, antifibrinolytic drugs like tranexamic acid (TXA) may help to prevent traumatic intra-cranial hemorrhage. The aim of current study was to determine the effect of Tranexamic acid on Glasgow Coma Scale score in TBI patients

Methodology: In this Quasi experimental type of study the 126 patients were recruited from the emergency department of Ziauddin University and Hospital North site who were presented with the traumatic brain injury. Confirmed patients of TBI were distributed into two groups; Tranexamic acid Group: A group of TBI patient received 1 gm. of tranexamic acid infused over ten minutes within three hours of injury along with standard treatment and Placebo Group: A group of TBI patient only received standard treatment.

Results: The mean age of the study subjects was found to be 45.6±18.7 ranged between 18 to 89 years. While assessing the clinical parameters mean temperature recorded is 36.6 ºC, with mean respiratory rate and pulse rate of 20.3 and 91.6 respectively. The comparative analysis of the two treatment groups in which one group got the TXA and other had the usual recommended drugs only with the effectiveness of TXA in term of improvement of GCS score showed highly significant statistical association.

Conclusion: Use of Trenaxamic acid (TXA) helps in improvement of GCS at many intervals of 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours as compared to those who received conventional treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal and Health-promoting Properties of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) and Its Extracts

Raza Hussain, Rashida Perveen, Ayesha Murtaza, Xue Huali, Muhammad Sajid Manzoor, Shoaib Younas, Itrat Fatima, Muhammad Naveed Babur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i37A36201

Numerous documented researches have been conducted to evaluate the potential of using different plants and herbs as traditional medicines. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an agricultural commodity belonging to the plant kingdom and family Cucurbitaceae. Besides having a higher content of calcium and iron, this plant also possesses considerable numbers of vitamins such as B1, B2, B3, and C. These are great sources of some biologically active compounds such as momordicin I, II, and cucurbitacin B. The salutary perceptions have been also emphasized as they are useful in protecting from cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis thereby, regulating the blood cholesterol level in the body. Bitter gourd entire fruit, seeds, and leaves help lower the fat accumulation and also control the impaired antioxidant status. Though this plant could facilitate the balance effect of anti-HIV drugs, the contents of ration amino sugar variate by declined and inclined, observed in lungs, heart, liver, and spleen during diabetes.