Open Access Case Report

A Case Report of Scapular Fracture Treated using Orif Plating

Vijay Narasimman Reddy, . Mervinrosario, Lionel John, Shradha Bora

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36169

Scapular fractures are uncommon and are basically caused due to high-energy trauma [1]. Computed tomography with 3D reconstruction maybe helpful in diagnosed the involvement of the glenoid surface. Where a large number of cases are managed conservatively but fracture with significant displacement may require operative fixation to achieve functional stability [2]. This is a case report of 55years old male, presenting with displaced comminuted fracture involving the body of right scapula following an RTA (Road traffic accidents) trauma and having undergone open reduction internal fixation plating with excellent clinical outcomes with constant score of 100 following 1 year of regular follow-up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Anti-inflammatory Medication on Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase Activity

Shazia Dawood, Samina Bano, Sadia Sundus, Asma Aijaz, Talat Samreen, Mohsin Ali Usmani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36166

Objective: To study the effects of anti-inflammatory medication on Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase activity.

Research Design: This was an investigational study.

Methodology: Eighteen fully grown albino rats separated into control and two treated sets, both treated sets were given indomethacin (50mg/1000g) orally. For acute treatment first treated set was sacrificed after 3.5 hrs & for chronic treatment second set was sacrificed after 3 days. However, control set animals were given an equivalent amount of vehicle.

Results: Outcomes shows that serum Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity was suppressed after acute treatment while serum IDO activity were increased after chronic treatment however no significant effect was seen on brain IDO.

Conclusion: It is concluded that indomethacin has not shown any significant effect on brain IDO. But inhibits serum IDO activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electromyographic Findings in Guillain-Barré Syndrome Patients

Naeemullah Bullo, Junaid Ahmed Shaikh, Munir Afzal, Suneel Kumar, Meraj Fatima, Dileep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36167

Objective: To determine electromyographic findings in Guillain-barré syndrome patients.

Setting and Duration Study: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Neuromedicine departments of tertiary care Hospital JPMC, from1st February 2020 to 30th July 2021.

Materials and Methods: GBS was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) in 1990. All patients gave consent to and underwent electromyographic assessment with a Keypoint evoked muscle potential equipment at admission and 2, 3, and 6 months post disease onset. The records of the patients were anonymized and deidentified before analysis.

Results: The Age range in this study was from 13 to 70 years with a mean age of 36.58±16.0 years. 63% of patients were of male gender and 37% of patients were female. The frequency of Electromyographic findings were acute demyelinating polyneuropathy in 73% of cases, acute sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy 14% of cases, acute motor xonal polyneuropathy 12% of cases and acute sensory polyneuropathy 1% case.

Conclusion: The electromyography plays a role to diagnose GBS but along with this NCV and CSF analysis are also helpful in diagnosis and prognosis prediction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Postoperative Complications with Anemic Women Underwent Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgeries

Farah Khan, Saira Jamshed, Ramna Devi, Naureen Waleem, Razia Hussain, Sarwat Khalid, Ahsan Ali Siddiqui

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36168

Objective: Preoperative anemia among women has been recognized as a risk factor for adverse postoperative complications following gynecologic and obstetric surgeries. Therefore, this retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the association of postoperative complications and comorbidities with anemia in women underwent gynecologic and obstetric surgeries.

Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Hamdard hospital, Karachi by using non-probability, purposive sampling technique. A total of 200 women were chosen for this study wherein 89 women were anemic and 111 were non-anemic. Duration of the study was one year from July 2018 – June 2019. Adult female patients of 18 to 65 years having elective or emergency surgical procedure were included. Chi square test was applied to evaluate the association between religion, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, and postoperative complications with anaemia.

Results: The study results showed that the mean age of studied women was found 32.04±7.79 years and mean hospital stay was reported 3.38±1.08 days. Regarding Comorbidities, 89(100.0%) non diabetic were anemic while 6(5.4%) diabetic and 105(94.6%) non-diabetic were non-anemic with a significant association of diabetes with anemia (p=0.026). Regarding postoperative complications, significant association of fever was found with anemia (p<0.001). Moreover, 71(79.8%) anemic and 39(35.1%) non-anemic reported postoperative nausea and vomiting with a significant association between them (p<0.001). As far as wound infection is concerned, significant association of wound infection was observed with anemia (p=0.020).

Conclusion: This study concluded that postoperative fever, nausea and vomiting were observed significantly higher in anemic women than non-anemic underwent gynecologic and obstetric surgeries. Wound infection was also significantly associated with anemia. Therefore, educational and nutritional policies should be planned to persuade women to use iron-rich diet in order to decrease the burden on patients facing these complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Characterization of Stabilized Drug, Formulated as Oro Dispersible Tablet Using Advanced Method

Mo’men Safari, Hammam A. Mowafy, Ahmed M. Samy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36170

In a challenge to prepare a stable Oro-dispersible tablet (ODT) of Desloratadine, using dry resin was incorporated into a fast-disintegrating matrix to prepare an optimized ODT that achieved the desired criteria of stabilization and patient acceptance. In this study, the critical process parameters (CPPs) and critical material attributes (CMAs) were determined via risk assessment methods within the framework of Quality by Design (QbD). The results showed that resin (Amberlite IRP64®) can be used as a dry stabilizer and the selected variables in the optimization phase have a strong influence on the blend flowability, disintegration time, and wetting time of the ODTs. Furthermore, by comparing the optimized formula with the marketed one, the optimized formula showed a significantly lower disintegration, lower wetting time, and an almost similar dissolution profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Test Betel Leaf (Piper betle L.) Extract for Wound Healing in White Rats

Anggi Aprilyani, Linda Chiuman, Chrismis Novalinda Ginting

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36171

The use of natural ingredients as a treatment and wound healing has been widely used, one of which is betel leaf (Piper betle Linn). This study aims to analyze and test whether betel leaf extract can accelerate wound healing in male white rats (Rattus norvegicus). This study used an experimental research design. The sample in this study were male white rats grouped randomly into 4 groups with each consisting of 5 rats, then given a 2 cm incision wound and given different treatments. The first group was the treatment groups with 2.5% betel leaf extract cream. The second group was given 5% betel leaf extract cream. Third groups with 10% betel leaf extract cream. The fourth group was the control group with NaCl 0.9%. The length of the wound in each group was observed and measured every day for 14 days. The data obtained is then analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The result showed that the wound healing process between treatment groups differed significantly because the level of effectiveness and optimization of the doses also varied, namely the sequence of treatment groups that accelerated the wound healing process was the betel leaf extract cream 10%, 5%, 2.5% and last NaCl 0.9%. Thus, it was concluded that the giving of betel leaf extract cream can accelerate the healing of wounds in male white rats which are characterized by the higher dosage of betel leaf extract will further accelerate the healing of incisions in male white rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Age, Gender and Type of Diabetes with Thiamine Level: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Lubna Raza, Uzma Raza, Raheela Adil, Sana Noor, Iqra Ali, Adnan Anwar, Syed Samir Anis, Fizza Islam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36172

Objective: Diabetes Mellitus has been observed to be related with low thiamine levels in the body, as it affects directly on carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, this study was intended to assessdemographic characteristics and serum thiamine levels in type I and type II diabetic patients and healthy control group.

Methodology: This was a case-control study carried out in diabetic outpatient department (OPD) of Urban Health Center and New Karachi, Hospital. The duration of the study was about six months after approval of synopsis. The study sample included 90 participants and divided into three groups, 30 participants each in the control, type I diabetes and type II diabetes groups. Patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus of both genders with age < 25 to > 46 years were included in the study. One Way ANOVA was applied to find out the significance of differences among the groups.

Results: The study results showed that out of 90 participants, 33(36.7%) were males and 57(63.3%) were females; 1(1.1%) of them had low thiamine level, 17(18.9%) had normal thiamine level whereas 72(80.0%) had high thiamine level. It was observed that significant association found between thiamine levels and age groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, 18(60.0%) had Low/Normal thiamine level and 12(40.0%) had high thiamine level in type I diabetes patients while 30(100%) in control group and Type II Diabetic patients had high thiamine level with significant association between them (p<0.001). On the other hand, an insignificant association was found between gender and low and high thiamine levels (p=0.743).

Conclusion: This study concluded that both the age and group types were significantly associated with thiamine levels of the participants. Furthermore, type I Diabetes patients had significantly lower thiamine levels as compared to type II Diabetes and controls. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship of gender with thiamine levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Temperature on the Dimensional Accuracy of Irreversible Hydrocolloid Material at Different Storage Time Intervals

Paras Talpur, Waheed Gul, Muslim Kohro, Rizwan Memon, Maria Syed, Sidra Soomro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35B36174

Aims: In this competitive arena, dentists are inevitably searching for dimensionally more stable and accurate material to produce precise, effective prosthesis. Amongst many impression materials used on a day-to-day basis, irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials are most commonly utilized due to easy manipulation, hydrophilic nature, elastic recovery, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. The main objective of this study was to observe the effect of temperature and storage time on the accuracy of an irreversible hydrocolloid material.

Study Design: Experimental and in-vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics and Research Medical Centre, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, February 2019 to July 2019.

Methodology: Total one hundred and five impressions cast models were made using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material (Hygedent) from ideal maxillary dentoform model. There were three temperatures (25°C,35°C and 45°C) and two storage timings (15 minutes and 25 minutes) along with one control group (immediate pouring). Measurements were taken utilizing digital Vernier Caliper. On each cast, two measurements were recorded in a linear manner including anteroposterior (AP) and Cross arch (CA).

Results: Results revealed that there is a significant difference between anteroposterior dimensional changes of distance from Mesial surface of maxillary right central incisor to distal surface of maxillary right first molar and cross-arch dimensional changes of distance from distal surface of maxillary right first molar to distal surface of maxillary left first molar at different storage temperatures and time intervals. This indicates that the dimensions are increasing directly as storage time and temperature increases which might be because of shrinkage of material due to increase in time of pouring. Shrinkage causes material to pull it towards the tray and increase the dimensions.

Conclusion: This study concluded that the best results could be obtained with immediate pouring at 25°C temperature as compared to other observed temperatures.