Open Access Case Report

Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Infarct Presenting as Unilateral Deafness in a Young Patient

Krishnan Mohankumar Vignesh, Natrajan Anuradha, Viknesh Prabhu, Patel Harshvardhan Anil Bhai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36152

Acute ischemic stroke in the supply of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is known to be connected with facial weakness, nystagmus, hearing loss, hypalgesia, and ataxia. This is a case of a young man with unilateral deafness caused due to infarction of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical findings and audiometry showed evidence suggestive of cochlear localization for deafness. MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) Brain shows involvement of pons with infarct is seen in the right Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory. The inclusion of labyrinthine auditory artery suggests sensorineural hearing loss.

Open Access Short Research Article

Outcome of Proximal Humerus Fracture

Vinoth Kumar, J. Suresh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36154

Introduction: Proximal fractures of the humerus account for about 4 to 5% of all fractures. They are the most common fractures in elderly population. Treatment of unstable, displaced, and comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus remains challenging.

Objectives: The present study is undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome of proximal humerus fractures treated by locking compression plate in 3 patients. Materials and methods: Prospective study was done involving 3 adult patients with proximal humerus fractures admitted. Results: In our series, the majority of the patients were 40 to 50 years of age.  After reduction and application of PHILOS plating, patient sympatomatically improved after series follow up with physio and mobilization was done Conclusion: In conclusion, securing density plate is anadvantageous implant in proximal humerus fractures due to angular stability, which allows their early mobilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Combination of Bi-inject (Triamcinolone and Mitomycin) After Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy for Short Urethral Strictures

Abdul Rehman, Ahmed Fawad, Atif Javed, Sajjan khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36151

Background: Urethral stricture disease has always been a challenge for urologists. Different treatment modalities that are used for treatment of urethral stricture disease, however recurrence has been a persistent problem. Agents such as triamcinolone and mitomycin-C offer hope but merit to be researched.

Objective: To test the combination of triamcinolone and mitomycin in direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU).

Methods: This quasi-experimental analysis was conducted in Ziauddin Hospital North Nazimabad upon a sample of 116 patients (selected using non-probability, consecutive sampling) in two groups (A: Experimental and B: Control) of 58 each. Data was recorded onto a structured questionnaire containing inquiries pertaining to basic biodata, sociodemographic details, disease history, operative notes and post0operative follow-up. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and MS. Excel 365.

Results: The mean age of the sample stood at 47 (SD ± 05) years, with the age ranging from 19 to 80 years. The etiology was idiopathic in most (55.2%) of the cases and the primary urethral strictures were the commonest (67.2%). Most strictures appeared between 6 to 9 months after the procedure and the incidence decreased with passage of time till no new cases were reported at 1 year. The outcome of the treatment in group A bi-inject given was regarded as success in 49 (84.5%) and in group B bi-inject not given was 32 (55.2%) of the cases. Among those that experienced a recurrence, majority (63%) of the patients experienced bulbar urethral stricture, while the remaining (37%) faced membranous urethral strictures. Few complications were seen in both groups, predominant among which was bleeding.

Conclusion: After careful consideration, it is concluded administration of triamcinolone and mitomycin in direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) yields a successful outcome significantly (<0.05) more frequently (84.5%) than the control group (52.5%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Complete Heart Block (CHB) and Its Association with Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction (AWMI)

Mir Fahad Hussain Talpur, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh, Shahbaz Ali Shah, Amjad Ali Hulio, Abdul Salam Detho, Muhammad Faizan, Jawaid Akber Sial, Sajjan Iqbal Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36153

Background: The presence of conduction defects complicates AMI frequently and is associated with increased short and long term mortality rates. The occurrence of complete heart block in anterior wall myocardial infarction is important because it indicates that infarction is extensive and may result in cardiac failure or death.

Objective: To determine the frequency of complete heart block (CHB) in patients presented with anterior wall myocardial infarction (AWMI).

Material and Methods: Total 152 patients with AWMI were included. The history of the patients was taken regarding hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, family history of CAD, and chronic kidney disease. Study outcome, complete heart block, was assessed and recorded.

Results: There were 81.6% male and 18.4% female patients. Mean age was 56.25±9.81 years. Total 9.2% patients were found with chronic kidney disease. In our study, 12.5% patients were found with complete heart block. Significant association of complete heart block was observed with hypertension and diabetes mellitus while no significant association was observed with gender, age, smoking, CAD family history, and chronic kidney disease.

Conclusion: Our study results showed 12.5% patients observed complete heart block. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are found as the significant risk factors of complete heart block.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practices Related to Burn First Aid among General Population in Saudi Arabia

Ezdehar Bakr Fallatah, Aishah Nabil Azam, Faisal Musaad Alhoshan, Turki Faissal Bugshan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36155

Background: Burn injuries represent a common type of traumatic injuries. They may cause morbidity, mortality, or psychological and cosmetic problems. About 265 000 individuals die secondary to burns according to the WHO results. Simple first aids following a burn injury have been shown to improve the outcome.

Objectives: Evaluation of first aid knowledge about the management of burns among the general population in Saudi Arabia.

Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that assesses awareness regarding burn injury first aids among the general population in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a questionnaire formed of 18 questions about demographic data, burn first aid knowledge and practice. Burn first aid knowledge and practice parts of the survey assessed participants' knowledge regarding basics of burn first aid and when to seek medical assistance.

Results: 70.6% of the sample study has previous knowledge of applying first aid for burns. 62.8% of the sample study think it's wrong to put raw eggs or herbs on the wound. 51.04% of the sample study use honey while 30.73% of them use toothpaste to treat burns. 76.3% of the sample study think that jewelry and clothing should be removed from the affected area of burn.

Conclusion: 70.6% of Saudi population had basic knowledge regarding the first aid of burn, however, there are wrong beliefs about the benefit of using honey, toothpaste, and raw egg in case of burns. Raising awareness of community members about the benefits of first aids for burns is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about the Importance of Stem Cells in Dentistry: A Survey

Rajasri Pradeep, Reshma Poothakulath Krishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36157

Background: Stem cells, the hero of regenerative medicine, are self renewable and has the potential to regenerate. Dental stem cells have proven to be an excellent source for mesenchymal cells. Dental mesenchymal cells can be applied for the replacement of dental and oral tissues against various tissue-damaging conditions including dental caries and periodontitis as well as for systemic regulation of excessive inflammation in immune disorders, such as autoimmune diseases and hypersensitivity.  In this study, a survey was conducted among the dental students of a private dental hospital regarding their awareness about stem cell therapy used in dentistry.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with the help of a questionnaire which was circulated with the help of social media and the internet. The target population were the dental practitioners and students of Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions that tested their knowledge and awareness regarding stem cell therapy in dentistry.

Results: A majority of the undergraduate dental students were aware of basics in stem cell therapy in dentistry. The majority were willing to practice regenerative therapy in future or invest for the same in one way or the other. The overall response of and the percent analysis were calculated for each question.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dental students of Saveetha dental college have sufficient knowledge and awareness regarding dental stem cells. Practice of dental stem cell therapy may be a big step now but is definitely going to be an advantage in the future.

Open Access Review Article

Proniosomes: Non-Ionic Surfactant Coated Vesicular Carrier Systems with Effective Drug Targeting

Santosh Kumar Rada, Gokula Brijitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36150

Proniosomes is one of the unique drug delivery technology wherein the medicament is enclosed in a vesicle and have a variety of medicinal and cosmetic applications. Vesicular drug delivery reduces the treatment cost by increasing the bioavailability of the drug, especially for sparingly soluble compounds. Proniosomes are easier to create and less expensive than other innovative formulations. Proniosomes improve medication stability and give significant accessibility in dosage, distribution, passage, and storage, demonstrating that proniosomes stand as a very promising drug carrier technology. This study emphasizes proniosome preparation procedures in general, and also its submissions in drug delivery and targeting. As well, this review broadly elucidates the potential of proniosomes in delivering drugs via different routes, such as oral, oral mucosal, dermal and transdermal, ocular, parenteral, pulmonary, intranasal, and vaginal. Lastly, a comparison of proniosomes versus niosomes demonstrates the fundamental differences between them. According to the findings, this system seems to be a prospective forthcoming drug carrier that might be scaled up for commercial use with physicochemical stability.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Impurity Profiling, Degradation Studies, and Bioanalytical Methods of Anti-diabetic Drugs

Mahesh M. Deshpande, Madhuri H. Bhalerao, Pooja D. Pabale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34B36156

According to ICH Q3A(R), the impurity in a new drug substance is “any component of a new drug substance that is not the chemical entity defined as a new drug substance”. As Per ICH Q3B(R), the impurity in a new drug product is “any component of the drug product that is not the drug substance and excipients in the drug product. “The forced degradation studies are used to facilitate the development of analytical methodology, to achieve a better understanding of the drug substance and the drug product stability, and to determine degradation pathways and the degradation products. This study will help to get the most stable formulation. The bioanalytical method development and validation is an essential part in the drug discovery and development. There is need to develop and validate bioanalytical methods, as sponsors have to submit clinical pharmacology, bioavailability, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic evaluation along with non-human pharmacology and toxicology studies and preclinical studies to regulatory authorities. There are number of spectroscopic methods includes Ultraviolet spectroscopy, Mass spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Chromatographic methods includes HPLC,HPTLC,GC,UPLC as well as hyphenated techniques like LC-MS, LC/ESI-MS, LC-NMR-MS used for identification and characterization of impurities in an API and the drug products forced degradation study to obtain stability data and bioanalytical methods.

The uniqueness of this review is that it describes the detail information and background explaining impurities, forced degradation and bioanalytical method development and validation as well as all literature available regarding development and validation of all said methods for the drugs and the drug products used to treat type 2 diabetes.