Open Access Case Report

Diagnostic Dilemma: A Case Report of Isolated Foot Drop

Anuraj Yadav, . Pugazhendhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36149

The Foot drop in which the patient is unable to or has difficulty performing dorsiflexion of the ankle joint. The causes of this condition are Lower motor neuron disease or Upper motor neuron disease with the former being much more common than the latter.  We hereby present a case of a 41- year- old male who presented to the Outpatient Department with complaints of difficulty in walking and weakness of the left foot since the past 4 months. Neurological examination found 1/5 power of the left ankle dorsiflexors along with the presence of ankle clonus.”Radiological investigations of the spine did not show any abnormality. Nerve conduction study of the lower limbs was also found to be normal. A plain CT scan of the brain showed the presence of a hyperdense lobulated mass on the right parietal lobe. Patient was referred to Neurosurgery after diagnosis was made where he underwent surgery for removal of the lesion. Patient’s ankle dorsiflexion power improved to 4/5 three weeks post surgery.

Open Access Short Communication

Organization of Medical and Sanitary Care for COVID-19 Coronavirus Infection in Uzbekistan

Khamdamov Dilshodjon Shaykhzoda Ugli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36148

For many centuries, humanity has been facing the global spread of dangerous infections. Today, a new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has entered the list of pathogens with pandemic potential. The virus quickly began to take over new territories. Already in February 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak acquired the status of a pandemic. To date, there is no country where at least one case of COVID-19 has not been recorded. The article presents the epidemiological situation in the world and in the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the procedure for organizing health care to the population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Formation of Mucociliary Insufficiency in the Bronches on the Role of Respiratory Viral Infection

Dilorom Kamarovna Ishankulova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36139

Background: The spectral composition and frequency of viral infections have been studied in frequently and long-term patients with respiratory diseases (PRI), as well as their role in the formation of mucociliary insufficiency. The role of immunosuppressive conditions and mixed infection is emphasized for the occurrence of complications.

Methods: Examined 29 patients with prolonged acute bronchitis (APB); 36 patients with recurrent bronchitis (RB) and 48 patients with chronic bronchitis (CB). The patients underwent general clinical studies according to a single plan adopted in the therapeutic department, as well as virological and immunological studies.

Results: The study of the spectral composition of viral infections in often long-term patients with bronchopulmonary pathology shows a high incidence of active (f = 0.93) and associated viral infections (f = 0.79), which largely determines the nature of the inflammatory process. The pathogenic role of certain viruses, such as influenza A, RS virus, adeno- and coronavirus (f = 0.84; 0.78; 0.77; 0.64), and their associations during the inflammatory process is undoubted. The frequency of respiratory syncytial viral (RS-viral) infection, which is characterized by damage to the deepest parts of the respiratory tract, is high (f = 0.78).

Conclusion: Comparative clinical and virological characteristics of patients made it possible to reveal the undoubted value of persistent in ABZ and RB (f = 0.55; 0.40), as well as chronic in RB (f = 0.15) viral infection, being one of the important causes of recurrent and protracted course of OB, as well as in the formation of altered bronchial reactivity (IRB) in them. A clinical case of a patient with influenza pneumonia is presented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mean Serum Level of C-reactive protein in Moderate and Severe Acne Patients

Muhammad Armughan, Shazia Bano, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed, Deepa Mohan Lal, Gurgez Karim Bukhsh, Muhammad Asif Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36140

Objective: To determine the mean serum level of C-reactive protein in moderate and severe acne patients visiting to a tertiary care hospital.

Setting and Duration Study: This study was conducted at Department of Dermatology, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan, from November 3, 2020 to May 2, 2021.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of dermatology,  Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, from November 3, 2020 to May 2, 2021. An inform consent was also taken prior to the enrolment of patients in the study. The selected participants were referred to the laboratory for hypersensitive-CRP (Hs-CRP) measurement. All the patients of any gender, aged between 16 to 40 years associated with moderate and severe acne duration of more than 3 months were included in this study. Effect modifiers were controlled through stratification of age, gender, duration of acne, and severity of acne (moderate / severe) and these stratified groups were compared by applying independent sample t-test by using P ≤ 0.05 as significant.

Results: Mean ± SD of age was 22.7±5.3 years. Mean ± SD of C-reactive protein was 4.15±1.2 (μg/ml). In distribution of gender, out of 56 patients, 30 (53.6%) were male while 26 (46.4%) were female. Out of 56 patients 21 (37.5%) had moderate acne vulgaris while 35 (62.5%) had severe Acne vulgaris.

Conclusion: It is to be concluded that mean serum level of C-reactive protein in severe acne patients was high as compared to moderate acne patients. Epidemiological and research data should be expanded by further studies to validate the current findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a New Related Substance by HPLC Method for Vildagliptin for Quantification of Purity

S. Sudharshana Charyulu, J. V. Shanmukha Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36145

Using a simple, quick, precise, and cost-effective approach, a new method for measurement of Vildagliptin in Active Pharma Ingredient (API) besides its relative substance was developed and validated. This method is simple, rapid, exact and cost-effective. With isocratic elution of buffer acetonitrile and methanol in the proportions of (87:10:3 v/v/v), the chromatographic separation was done on an ODS-4 C18 column (3 m 250 4.6 mm) using a 4.6-millimeter ODS-4 C18 column. Using a photodiode array (PDA) detector, we measured the flow rate of one milliliter per minute (ml/min), the column temperature of fifty degrees Celsius, and the detection wavelength of two hundred and ten nanometers (nm). Vildagliptin has a theoretical plate of 8000 and a tailing factor of 1.38, making it one of the most potent drugs available. The approach was validated in compliance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements. Precision, accuracy, and resilience were all high on the list of desirable characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interrelationships between Leptin and Thyroid Profile in Overweight/Obese Urban Population of Manipur

Loushambam Samananda Singh, Y. Govindaraj, Ksh. Gomti Devi, W. Kanan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36146

Aims: The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between leptin and thyroid profile in overweight/obese Manipur individuals.

Materials and Methods: A total of 250 people (of either gender) between the ages of 20 and 65 were included in the study. The body mass index (BMI) was computed using the height and weight of the individual. Blood samples were used to assess serum leptin, thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Significant variations between the groups were examined, as well as leptin and thyroid associations with various BMIs.

Findings: Leptin levels were significantly higher in the overweight/obese group (12.73 ± 9.93 ng/ml) than in the control group (6.85 ± 6.49 ng/ml), (P <0.01). T4 levels did not differ significantly between normal (7.83 ± 1.51 µg/dl) and overweight/obese individuals (8.49 ± 2.00 µg/dl) whereas, TSH levels differed significantly between normal (2.79 ± 2.72 µIU/ml) and overweight/obese subjects (2.32 ± 1.54 µIU/ml), (P <0.05). A positive significant correlation was found between BMI and leptin (r = 0.38; P = 0.00) as well as between BMI and T4 (r = 0.14; P = 0.02). BMI and TSH did not have any correlations. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between leptin and T4 or TSH. 

Conclusion: The leptin and thyroid hormone are strongly linked in those who are overweight/obese.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Gel Loaded with Fluconazole Niosomes

Gajjala Sravan, K. Latha, R. Padmavathi, Maimuna Fatima, C. V. Sai Sravani, M. Saritha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36147

Aim: The study aims to formulate and evaluate topical gel-loaded fluconazole niosomes. Fluconazole is a macrolide antibacterial used against various susceptible bacteria. Niosomes have a substantial role in the delivery of drugs as they can reduce toxicity and modify pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. Niosomes which are applied topically improve the deposition of drugs within stratum corneum and epidermis at the same time reducing systemic availability.

Methodology: In current investigation, fluconazole was entrapped into niosomes by thin-film hydration technique with the optimization of various process parameters like entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, shape and in-vitro drug release studies.

Results: Optimized formulations FNS5 and FNT4 prepared with Span-60 and Tween-60 exhibited vesicle sizes of 845.6 nm and 164.2 nm, zeta potential -10.2 mV and -46.4 mV indicating the formulation has good stability. The optimized niosomes were integrated into carbopol 934 and guar gum gels and then extensively characterized for zeta potential and vesicle size.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that entrapment of drugs into niosomes led to prolonged drug release time, enhanced permeation and drug retention.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview on Nano Niosomes: As an Optimistic Drug Delivery System in Targeted Drug Delivery

Jyoti K. Jawale, Vushali S. Kashikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i34A36142

Targeted drug-delivery systems are used for the administration of pharmaceutical medicament enables the localization of drugs to diseased sites. Different types of drug-delivery systems uses carriers, like immunoglobulins, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, liposomes, nanoparticle and microspheres.  Niosomes are an emerging type of novel vesicular systems. Now they are being fervent explored as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery. In addition to conventional, oral, and parenteral routes, they are liable to be delivered by ocular, transdermal, vaginal, and inhalation routes. Nano-niosomes are non-ionic surfactants based vesicles that are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable and inexpensive than liposomes. Other component, such as cholesterol, can be used to give the rigidity to the niosomes structure.  The unique vesicular structure of niosomes, with their bilayer lamellae assembled by nonionic surfactants, is able to increase the bioavailability of a drug to a predetermined area for a period. The amphiphilic nature of niosomes promotes their efficiency in encapsulating hydrophobic or hydrophilic drugs. These nonionic vesicular carriers not only transport the pharmacological agents to target site or disease site, avoiding normal tissues and reducing toxicity in the rest of the body, but also protect drugs from degradation, increase the half-life, payload and solubility of drug and reduce renal clearance. This present review describe overview of niosomes formulation aspects, structure, types of niosomes, advantages, and disadvantages, method of preparation as well as some general observations on niosomes.