Open Access Original Research Article

Model Eye Pictures can Lay the Foundation for Pictures Observed by Patients having Cataract Surgery while Simulation

Nisar Ahmed Jandan, Maqbool Ahmed Jamali, Ateeq Rehman, Muhammad Ashfaque Abbasi, Abbas Ali Ghoto, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36111

Aim: The photographs of a model eye during the fake waterfall are to be evaluated by medical treatment.

Methodology: This study was performed as a study in a research institution and a case procedure was carried out. Our current research was conducted at People Medical College Hospital, Nawabshah from April 2020 to March 2021. In the "front office" of a model eye, the iced rear surface was inserted with a flawed fogged focus, an acceptable intraocular focal point or an I/A tip. During the replicated Waterfall treatment, video pictures were collected from the back surface of the model eye. Before the waterfall surgery, 26 patients saw the video pictures and post-operatively rated their visual impressions.

Results: View from behind were pictures of the movable focal parts, the I/A tip and the IOL add-on. The image via the opiated focus point and the IOL has been the light of the meticulous enlargement lens from behind without moving objects. However, after IOL added, pictures of the tiny and working space were switched off from behind by the light of the magnifying equipment. 70% of patients reported the visual feel of shifting focal components as video cuts and 58%. The overwhelming majority of patients advised that the film before their intended medical operation should be viewed.

Conclusion: The model eye can re-enable visual insight for patients throughout the medical treatment for a waterfall. The preoperative view of the video pictures might aid to loosen the sufferers during the treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Saccadic as Well as Manual Reaction Times to Targets Given to the Amblyopic Eye are Faster than Those of the Opposite Eye or Normal Eyes

Maqbool Ahmed Jamali, Nisar Ahmed Jandan, Ateeq Rehman, Muhammad Ashfaque Abbasi, Abbas Ali Ghoto, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36112

Aim: Amblyopia is caused by a combination of neural and visual impairments caused by abnormal early visual growth. One of the many drawbacks of amblyopia is that the amblyopic eye's saccadic and physical reaction times to targets presented to it are much slower than the other eye or normal eyes.

Methodology: Assumed that amblyopic eye's recognized impairments in contrast sensitivity, the question immediately arises if the longer reaction times are merely a result of the stimuli's diminished visibility. Our current research was conducted at People Medical College Hospital Nawabshah from May 2019 to April 2020.

Results: RTs to perifoveal stimuli are measured in study 1 as a function of efficient stimulus contrast, i.e., contrasting as measured by the amblyopic eye's comparison threshold. In our anisometropic amblyopes, researchers find that the asymptotic RTs including both eyes are the same when the sensory differences among eyes are minimized or eliminated. Several cross-eyed amblyopes, though, might have had an insurmountable delayed at asymptote. However, after accounting for stimulus sensory changes, these individuals' saccadic response times exhibited considerable interocular discrepancies. According to our results, eliminating the fixation image does slow down the amblyopic eye's reaction time, and that the gap impact is the same in both eyes. Therefore, the amblyopic eye's intrinsic delayed is not eliminated by the gap impact.

Conclusion: Last but not least in Experiment 3, we looked at the interocular variations in saccadic and manual reaction times for the same participants. As a result, we were able to determine the relationship between latencies in the two modes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biliary Atresia: GGT vs Histopathology as Diagnostic Tool

Sikandar Ali Bhand, Imran Ahmed, Shahjahan Fazlani, Asif Ali Khuhro, Momna Khan, Khadim Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36110

Background: Biliary Atresia (BA) also known as "progressive obliterative cholangiopathy" is one of the most common conditions requiring pediatric liver transplant and the most common surgically treatable cause of neonatal cholestasis. Associated malformations are present in 25% of cases and it is most common in East Asia, with incidence reported as high as one in 5,000. BA presents with cholestatic Jaundice, initially indistinguishable from physiological jaundice. Symptoms include progressive cholestasis, causing yellowing of the skin, pruritis, pale stools, dark urine.

Methods: This study is a Cross sectional study conducted at the Department of Pediatric Medicine, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child’s Health, Lahore in the duration of 6 months (2018-2019), after approval from the Institution’s Review Board. All patients of age ≤ 14 months, presenting in pediatric emergency with cholestatic jaundice and fulfilling inclusion criteria were included in this study.

Results: In our study a total of 150 cases were enrolled. The mean age of patients in months was 7.13 ± 3.81. The male to female ratio of the patients was 1.3:1, 86(57.33%) males and 64(42.67%) females. The results showed that the mean initial observation of jaundice was 8.54 ± 3.89 days with minimum and maximum duration of 2 & 15 days, respectively. In our study the mean GGT level of the patients was 303.13 ± 58.53. In our study, on the basis of GGT level BA was diagnosed positive in 83 cases and negative in 67 cases, which was exceptionally consistent with the gold standard i.e. histopathology  which diagnosed 82 cases as positive for BA and labelled 68 cases negative.

Conclusion: Serum GGT elevated levels are suggestive of biliary atresia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pediatric Anthropometrics: An Observational Study from Indus Medical College, Tando Muhammad Khan, Sindh, Pakistan

Sikandar Ali Bhand, Imran Ahmed, Shahjahan Fazlani, Asif Ali Khuhro, Momna Khan, Khadim Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36114

Background: Children constitute a big proportion of human population and they are the future of any nation so their health is of prime importance. Child health care has the special focus in the health care policy of any system. .

Study Place, Duration and Design: The current research was an observation study conducted during July to December 2021 in Pediatric outpatient department at Indus Medical College Hospital Tando Muhammad Khan.

Methods: Consent was taken from parents and demographic data and anthropometric measurements were carried out and recorded on prepared proforma, frequency and percentage was calculated for various parameters

Results: There were 956 children evaluated for anthropometric parameters out of which male were 637(66.63%) and females were 319(43.37%). The weight was normal in 603(63.10%), Low in 332(34.73%) and above normal in 21(2.20%) children. The height was seen normal 713(74.5%), short stature was seen in 201(21%) and 42(4.5%) children were taller.

Conclusion: Various abnormalities in weight and height of study children were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predisposing Factors Leading to Warfarin Toxicity

Mustajab Mujtaba, Muhammad Faisal Khanzada, Saba Aman, Khalil Ahmed, Naveed Ahmed, Muhammad Usama Haider, Abdul Samad Achakai, Sajjan Iqbal Memon, Moiz Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36116

Introduction: Warfarin is a commonly utilized anticoagulant in the management of thrombosis, either prevention or treatment, with bleeding problems as one of the major adverse effect because of its narrow therapeutic index.

Objective: To determine the frequency of various factors leading to warfarin toxicity which was defined as patients presented with International Normalized Ratio (INR) greater than five.

Setting: Department of Adult Cardiology at National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan.

Methodology: The study type is descriptive, cross sectional. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and visited Department of Adult Cardiology at NICVD, Karachi, Pakistan were included. After ethical approval and informed and written consent. The collected data was entered using IBM SPSS - 21, for variables that were continuous mean Standard Deviation was calculated and for variables that were categorical frequency percentage were calculated.

Results: Total of 87 patients with warfarin toxicity were included. 52 patients (60%) were males & 35 (40%) were females with the mean age of 48.5287 ± 13.1386 years. The factors leading to warfarin toxicity were dietary non-compliance 19 patients (21.83%), drug non-compliance in 18 (20.68%), drug-drug interactions in 12 (13.79%), irregular follow up in 23 (26.39%) and deranged liver functions in 26 (29.88%) patients.

Conclusion: Warfarin toxicity has multifactorial causes. Deranged liver functions and irregular follow up of patients accounted for the most prominent factors leading to warfarin toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Whitening Cream: A Cross-sectional Study in Tertiary Care Setting

Shazia Bano, Munazzah Meraj, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed, Tabinda Taqi, Mubeena Laghari, Farhan Mir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36117

Aim: To determine the side effects of skin whitening creams in a tertiary care facility.

Methodology: The current cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of dermatology, Peoples University of Medical & Health Science for Women Nawabshah (PUMHSW), Sindh, Pakistan from January 2019 to July 2019. A total of 140 consecutive patients were included in the study matching the inclusion criteria. All the demographic clinical variables and follow-up data were recorded on a proforma designed for the study, the data collected were statistically analyzed and the results were tabulated.

Results: In this study we observed various side effects in patients who used whiting creams. Redness showed in 81 patients (57.85%), flushing in 86 patients (61.42%), sensitivity in 99 patients (7.14%), acne in 52 patients (37.14%), thinning of skin in 77 patients (55%), pigmentation in 67 patients (47.85%),telangiectasiain 43 patients (30.71%), wrinkles in 33 patients (23.57%), and hirsutism in 44patients (31.43%).

Conclusion: We concluded that whitening creams used in our facilityare strongly associated with several cutaneous side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking Analysis of Bacoside A with Selected Signalling Factors Involved in Glioblastoma

Pooparambil Vishnupriya, Surovi Saikia, Ganesan Suresh Kumar, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36118

Glioblastoma is the malignant tumor affecting the central nervous system. Despite the advancement in treatment modalities, presence of blood-brain barrier, recurrence after surgical removal, resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain the major obstacles for long term survival of the patients. In this context, finding suitable therapeutics which have anticancer potential and are nontoxic might be useful to improve the overall survival of GBM. Plant products are safer, nontoxic and cheaper when compared to the chemotherapeutic drugs in trend which are expensive and highly toxic, owing to their systemic effects. Bacoside A (BA) is one such plant constituent isolated from Bacopa monnieri which offers neuroprotection and possesses anticancer potential. The present investigation elucidates the specific interaction of BA with various cell surface receptors, signal transduction proteins, effector proteins and transcription factors involved in glioblastoma signalling such as EGFR/Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway, Notch signalling and Wnt-beta catenin signalling through molecular docking studies. The interaction between BA and the target proteins of glioblastoma were analysed through the Glide module (Version 6.5) of Schrodinger Suite (2015) software. According to the results of molecular docking, jagged-1 ligands interact with BA with stronger affinity and Frizzled receptors interact with least affinity in terms of glide score. The results indicate that BA interacts well with the polar amino acids such as Asn, Trp, Arg, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Gln, Asp, Lys and Glu. The ligand also showed interactions with specific hydrophobic amino acids such as Val, Ala and Leu in all the protein targets studied. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal the cytotoxic potential of BA on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. This study warrants further investigation to elucidate modulations on cell signalling pathways resulting from the specific BA-target interactions in glioblastoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

The cytological Aspect of Clinically Concerned Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy- a Prospective Study

Rakesh Kumar Rashmi, S. S. Chandanwale, C. R. Gore, Pratyush Mishra, Harsh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i32B36119

Aims: The purpose of the study was to find out the distribution of various diseases in supraclavicular lymphadenopathy by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and to study cytomorphological findings in detail.

Study Design: The present study was a prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Dr. DY Patil medical college and research centre, DY Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India. The study was conducted over a period of 2 years (i.e., September 2019 to August 2021).

Methodology: Fine needle aspirations (FNA) were performed in 50 cases of supraclavicular lymphadenopathy after obtaining written consent. The cytomorphological features of stained smears were studied in detail.

Results: A total of 50 aspirates were studied. The male to female ratio found was 2:3. The age of the patients ranged from 9 yrs to 81 yrs. The maximum number of cases were found in the elderly (>60 yrs). A predominance of right-sided lymphadenopathy was seen. Diagnosis based on FNAC findings were categorized as metastatic deposits (34% cases), tubercular lymphadenitis (16% cases), reactive lymphadenitis (14% cases), granulomatous lymphadenitis (14% cases), acute suppurative lymphadenitis (12% cases), necrotizing lymphadenitis (8% cases) and one NHL (2% case).

Squamous cell carcinoma (14% cases) was the most commonest metastatic lesion followed by adenocarcinoma (10% cases). Common primary sites were the breast, lung, and gall bladder for adenocarcinoma, whereas the oesophagus and tongue for squamous cell carcinoma.

Conclusion: Supraclavicular node was well known for metastasis but non-malignant cause like tuberculosis is frequently found in developing countries. Enlarged supraclavicular nodes suggest some underlying pathology and chances of malignancy increase with the age of the patient. FNAC can be used as a first-line investigation for diagnosis because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and efficacy to rule out metastasis.