Open Access Systematic Review Article

Awareness and Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease among the General Population: A Systematic Review

Kurnia Yogyanti, Susi Ari Kristina, Chairun Wiedyaningsih

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36098

Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the cardiovascular diseases that become the leading cause of death (LCOD) in the United States. Knowledge gaps in CHD and its risk factors are significant obstacles to effective prevention and treatment. People's awareness of CHD and their knowledge of its risk factors could provide crucial information for behavior change in the prevention of CHD. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine some of the literature on the knowledge and awareness of CHD in the general population.

Study Design: Systematic Review.

Methodology: Two databases were searched for publications between 2011 and 2021. All studies that were published in English and had components of awareness and knowledge related to CHD were included. A total of 1082 titles and abstracts were screened, 55 full-text articles were assessed and 15 were included for review.

Results: This review used data from a total of 4907 respondents and the results were varied. Studies that were conducted in the same countries might have different results. Men and participants with a college education have better knowledge than their counterparts. Meanwhile, another study shows that the elderly have poor knowledge about CHD. Several studies conducted among university employees showed that the majority of participants had poor knowledge of risk factors, while another study showed good knowledge.

Conclusion: Our review study showed that most of the study participants had low awareness of CHD and knowledge of its risk factors. Family history of CHD, risk factor profile, and some sociodemographic factors have been reported to be associated with the awareness and knowledge of CHD. Providing health information by healthcare professionals can be the right way to increase people’s awareness and knowledge in order to prevent CHD in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Determine the Mean Glycemic Changes after Vitamin D3 Supplement in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus and Vitamin D Deficiency Presenting at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi

Mujeeb U. Rehman, Dilawar Khan Jokhio, Abdul Qayyum, Fizza Nazim, Naseer Ahmed Memon, Jamal Raza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36089

Introduction: Glucose Homeostasis can potentially be affected by Vitamin D.  Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a global problem with an estimated one billion people worldwide suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a global health issue and is on the rise in Pakistani pediatric population. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) also negatively impacts bone health and is associated with a modest reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) and strength (7,8) Given the negative impact of vitamin D inadequacy and T1D on bone health, Adolescent with both conditions have multiple risk factors for increased skeletal fragility. In this study we evaluated glycemic changes after vitamin D3 supplement in patients with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency.

Objective: To determine the mean glycemic changes after vitamin D3 supplement in children with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi.

Methodology: A quasi experimental study design was conducted on 40 children who were presenting in OPD of NICH Karachi for six months. All patients were subjected to demographics and detailed history for Type 1 Diabetes and Vitamin D deficiency. Immunoturbidometry for HbA1C and ELISA for 25OHD was performed. Vitamin D3 supplement was advised as per operational definition. Insulin dose was recorded by parents for three months. 25OHD and HbA1C levels were measured following Vitamin D3 supplements. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the significance.

Results: We observed a significant difference in mean HbA1c level at pre-treatment and post treatment was 9.89±2.04 and 8.42±1.87 respectively with Vitamin D3 supplements, with p-value 0.001.

Conclusion: Vitamin D3 supplement improves HbA1C in patients with type I diabetes and vitamin D deficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Causes and Risk Factors of Coccydynia in Postpartum Women in Dhq Sargodha

Maryam Junaid Meer, Malik Muhammad Atif, Farjad Afzal, Iqra Aslam, Azfar Khurshid, Hunza Zulfiqar, Hafiz Muneeb Ur Rehman, Ahmad Usama Ali Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36090

Objective: This study investigated the causes and risk factors of coccydynia among postpartum women in Maula Bakhsh DHQ Sargodha. The main focus of the study was to identify what are the basic causes and risk factors of coccydynia.

Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study on 90 postpartum women from Maula Bakhsh DHQ Sargodha. Self-developed questionnaire was filled for data collection.

Results: Highest percentages of coccydynia was found among age 30 and 35 i.e. 12.2%. Our study showed that out of the total population 68.9% women experienced coccydynia with C sections. 73.3% experienced coccydynia with increasing number of pregnancies (more than one pregnancy. 90% women experiencing pain preferred to sit on soft surface.

Conclusion: This study concluded that multiple factors led to the development of coccydynia in postpartum women including number of C sections and increasing number of pregnancies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patients’ Perceptions and Satisfaction Regarding Tele-consultations during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Fatemah Kamel, Rania Magadmi, Mawadah Magadmi, Fawaz Alfawaz, Mohammed Alfawaz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36093

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the widespread implementation of tele-consultation. Tele-consultation provides remote communication and reduces the risk of virus transmission. However, patients’ perceptions and satisfaction are relevant to ensuring the quality of the service. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate patients’ perceptions and satisfaction regarding tele-consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jeddah.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire to assess patients’ perceptions and satisfaction regarding tele-consultations during May 2020. A total of 347 participants were included.

Results: More than one third of the sample were above 40 years, women (73.2%), and had a university education (70.8%). Patients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of tele-consultation ranged from 71.43% to 88.77% and their satisfaction level ranged between 59.40% and 83.96%. Older patients who had favorable outcomes from tele-consultation strongly agreed about the effectiveness of tele-consultation and were more satisfied. Patients with higher education levels who used the service only once were more satisfied with the experience. Moreover, those patients with greater age and educational levels and those who called for emergencies and to request medication refills were more likely to use tele-consultation in the future beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. When asked about reasons for dissatisfaction, 70% of the participants were unhappy with the wait time for a tele-consultation.

Conclusions: Most patients were satisfied with the tele-consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, a better understanding of patients’ perceptions and reasons for dissatisfaction are fundamental in the planning and implementation of tele-consultations in Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cost Minimization Study of Analgesics Prescribed to Outpatients Undergoing Periodontal Treatment

Dharmesh Sharma, Amit Chaudhary, Rajan Negi, Sakshi Supehia, Shiva Chauhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36097

Aims: Drug use reviews are useful quantitative tools for assessing options for drug prescribing in dental pain. Regular drug use pattern evaluations help to identify current medication usage patterns, improve treatment efficacy, reduce adverse effects, and advise prescribers. The goal of this study was to look at the analgesics prescribed to outpatients in the department of periodontics to see if they could be cut back on costs.

Methodology:  A prospective cross-sectional drug utilisation evaluation was conducted among outpatients in the department of periodontics of a dental college in Himachal Pradesh from August 2020 to July 2021. In order to determine prescriber adherence to WHO guidelines, the proportion of analgesics written in generic names and from the NLEM 2015 were determined. The costs of prescribed analgesics (brand name and generic name) were calculated to determine the patient's out-of-pocket expenses.

Result: The prescribed analgesics cost 74632.75 INR. The Aceclofenac/ paracetamol/ serratiopeptidase combination was the most commonly recommended analgesic. If all medicines were prescribed with generic names, the cost of analgesics could be cut by 85%.

Conclusion: Prescriptions for brand names were the primary cause of the prescription's high cost. The use of generic drugs should be expanded. In order to satisfy WHO requirements, it is necessary to increase the number of medications prescribed in line with NLEM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anxiety, Depression, Psychological Reaction and Impact of COVID 19 on Human Fertility

Mehwish Younus, Aruna Kumari Hira, Urooj Naz, Sana Shahmir, Uroosa Naz, Rabia Mazhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36101

Objective: The current study aim to understand the anxiety, depression, psychological reaction and impact of COVID-19 on human fertility in Karachi, Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all married 243 patients at Out Patients Department (OPD) of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The data were collected through a standardized questionnaire and this was done between from July 2020 to December 2021. Regarding the inclusion criteria, only patients who consulted a gynecologist were invited to participate in the study voluntarily. The principles of research ethics regarding the confidentiality of the data collected and ensure the anonymity of the participants. The data were analyzed by way of descriptive statistics and cross tabulation, with a P value of 5 per cent used to determine level of significance.

Results: Mostly patients were observed above 30 years 42.38% with mean age was 36.12± 3.2 years (range 18-50 years) and majority of patient’s relatively good health status 153(62.96%). Mostly couple 161 (66.25%) avoid the pregnancy in covid-19 period. Patients preferring to avoid the pregnancy due to higher COVID-19 contagion anxiety 121(75.15%) were observed. The main reason for avoid the pregnancy was fear of delivering a baby in the current situation 110(68.32%) cases. Followed by infected 55(34.16%), financial concerns 63(39.13%) and risks for the pregnancy 88 (54.65%) cases. There are significant number of patients, who report moderate anxiety 73(30.04%), severe anxiety 55(22.63%), findings of PHQ9 shows moderate depression 67(27.57%), moderately severe depression 71 (29.21%), and severe depression 25(10.28%). 

Conclusion: In Covid-19 period were observed high rate of anxiety, depression, and psychological reaction in female patients who wants to conceive. Anxiety, depression, and psychological reaction might be leading to changes in sexual behavior can all predict the quality of a couple’s relationship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Optimisim and Resilience and Level of Physical Activity among General Population of Aurangabad: A Cross-sectional Study

Junneshwar Bidve, Sakshi Shah, Ashwin Kshirsagar, Tushmeetkaur Bhatia, Ansari Sadaf Naaz, Aleena Seneen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36126

Background: Physical activity is a voluntary body movement which requires energy expenditure. Optimism makes an individual more resilient so if adversity strikes and the person has an upbeat attitude towards life, it is likely that an individual may bounce back stronger as before. The capacity to change or adjust to various situations may or may not depend on the level of physical activity and optimism in one’s life. The current study is aimed to determine the relationship between physical activity, optimism and resilience among general population of Aurangabad.

Methods: This cross sectional study had a total of 531 respondents from across the city, out of which 228 were willing to participate. It included individuals from a age group of 18-52 years, of varying occupation.

Outcome Measures: Three scales were used specifically. Life Orientation Test (LOT) was used to measure optimism. Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) was used to evaluate resilience   and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure the physical activity among the individuals.

Results: The results were calculated using statistical tests. Chi-square test was used to find association between physical activity and optimism. The results showed a positive correlation between physical activity and optimism with a p value of > 0.05. The relation between optimism and resilience was calculated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.

Conclusion: The study signifies a strong positive correlation between optimism, resilience and physical activity among general population of Aurangabad. The study also concludes a positive correlation between optimism and resilience.

Open Access Review Article

Pulsatile Drug Delivery System (PDDS): A Cronotherapeutic Approach for Optimum Therapy

Santosh Kumar Dash, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Ashutosh Padhan, A. S. Khan, Nabin Karna, Naimish Nanda, Smrutiranjan Dash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i31B36094

Now a day’s PDDS are gaining more attraction and importance especially for the disease follow circadian rhythms. Some chronic disease like rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, hypercholesterolemia, hyper acidity and cardio vascular diseases where peak symptoms tends to follow a 24 hour cycle called circadian rhythms. Optimum therapy of these diseases demands a drug delivery system where Cmax of the drug achieve exactly at the time of peak of the disease. This is only possible by chronotherapeutic approach i.e. pulsatile drug delivery system. This delivery system not only releases the right amount of drug at the right time but also overcome the other challenges like drug tolerance and over dose associated with traditional sustained or extended release drug delivery system. Drugs under goes extensive first pass metabolism, degradation in gastric acid medium, having biological tolerance and targeted to distal parts of GIT are suitable candidates for PDDS. It has many advantages like pre-programmed delayed-release, multiple dosing option, reduce drug loss, less drug interaction and improve patient compliance etc There are various technologies of PDDS like C O D A S ® ,O R O S ® , DIFFUCAPS ®,3D Printing, PULSINCAPTM are already available in the market. The current work is focused on the requirements, advantages, disadvantages and a review on various drugs and polymers used to develop PDDS in current & past decades. The study revealed that, PDDS has a tremendous scope and can play a vital role in the optimum treatment of many chronic diseases which follows circadian rhythm.