Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Status of Online Education among Dental College Students

I. Priyan, A. Jothipriya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36052

E-learning has become an essential method and implemented by educational institutions across the world. Physiological change of online education among college students, based on a questionnaire or a Google form. Age among 21 to 25 where more knowledge about online education. Time spent for online classes per day is more than 6 hrs. The effectiveness of online classes varies among age groups. To make awareness about online education. A self structured questionnaire is being prepared and uploaded in Google forms. Increased implementation of technology will increase students' comprehension of content and skill developed. Asynchronous delivery is threaded discussions, e-mail and telephone calls. Education institutions created to deliver knowledge have yet to adopt technology for this purpose. Learning comparison has now been introduced in school. Online education experience is typically asynchronous and also incorporates synchronous elements. Increased implementation of technology will increase students' comprehension of content and skill developed. The study showed that the people who are aged between 21 to 25 are more aware of online education.  The p- value of this study is found to be 0.002, (p<0.05), hence statistically significant. The aim of the study is to rule out the physiological changes of online education among the college students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Age of Onset of Menopause

Erum Memon, Mala Jitendra Shahani, Zia Ullah Khan, Farah Liaquat, Asma Iqbal, Sumiyya Khalid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36053

Background: Menopause is a natural process, occurring in women that marks the end of fertility among women. It is characterized by a cessation of menstruation, decline in ovarian activity and disturbances in periods along with vaginal dryness, mood swings and hot flashes. The age of menopause ranges in between 40 to 55 years. Although there are many factors affecting the age of menopause onset like metabolic syndrome, cytotoxic drugs, but there is no general agreement on them.

Objectives: To explore the factors affecting age of onset of menopause among Pakistani women.

Methodology: This cross-sectional-observation study was conducted on 139 women (aged at or above 40 years) presenting to the Outpatient Department of Obstetrics – Gynecology at Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi – Pakistan from Nov 2020 to May 2021. Data was collected using a structured interview-based questionnaire containing inquiries pertaining to basic biodata, sociodemographic details, menstrual history, and probable factors affecting age of onset of menopause. Chi-square test was applied to check the association between the different factors and age of menopause.

Results: The mean age of the participants was found to be 43.23 ± 4.11 SD years, while the mean age of onset of menopause was recorded to be 49.21 ± 3.83 SD years. The associations between the marital status, body mass index, use of OCP and socio-economic factors with age of onset of menopause, were found to be statistically significant.

Conclusion: Menopausal age not only reflects the end of fertility era but also of aging as well. Age of menopause significantly effects physical and psychological health of women and is considered as a very important event in women’s lives. Controllable factors like obesity, tobacco use, use of OCP plays a significant role in age of onset of natural menopause.

Open Access Original Research Article

Student Pharmacist Led International E-Learning Collaborative and Educational Experience: Understanding the Role of Pharmacists and Pharmacy Curriculum in Mexico and USA

Eduardo Fricovsky, Zaid Yousif, Jorge Garcia-Sarzosa, Linh Ngo, Brittney Choi, Martha Garcia, Gabino Estevez, Mudassar Iqbal Arain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36057

Background: Pharmacy students in Mexico are exposed to United States’ pharmacy community services in hopes to adopt the services for their own pharmacy program.

Objectives: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a strictly online-based teaching method to improve student knowledge on the role of pharmacists and the pharmacy curriculum in Mexico and the United States.

Methods: This was a prospective study of pharmacy students attending the University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UCSD SSPPS) and Facultad de Quimic-Pharmaco-Biologia de la Universidad Michoacana San Nicolas de Hidalgo (UMSNH) during the 2015-2016 academic year who enrolled in the E-Learning Collaborative and Educational Experience Independent Study.

Results: The e-learning course had 25 students total from both the United States and Mexico enrolled. Out of the 25 students, 4 students from the United States and 11 students from Mexico agreed to participate in the study. In the familiarity/confidence section of survey, there was a significant increase in 4 out of 5 questions in the Mexico group and 2 out of 5 in the U.S. groups. In the survey section regarding students’ perspective of e-learning and likelihood of community involvement, there was no statistical difference in the U.S. group and only one in the Mexico group.

Conclusion: Despite the lack of statistical significance, the increase in median scores and proportion of correct responses in addition to the feedback provided by students suggest a positive learning experience to supports continuation of this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dentist's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Central India: A Questionnaire Based Survey

Megha J. Agrawal, Jaykumar R. Gade, Minal N. Soni, Sayali G. Dandekar, Karan V. Jaiswal, Sayali P. Nikode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36058

Context: Obstructive sleep apnea is a very usual sleep disorder that frequently goes undetected. In dental training enough significance aren’t inclined to the various sleep disorders existing. Dentists take a crucial role in assessing, diagnosing, management and referring of OSA patients.

Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice about obstructive sleep apnea among dentists in Central India.

Study design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Central India from January 2021 to June 2021 for duration of six months at Nagpur.

Methodology: 185 dentists participated in the survey. A questionnaire consisting of 23 items, evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and practice with respect to nine distinct domains concerning obstructive sleep apnea and circulated through a web designed program. Good/poor remarks were given to knowledge and practice questions and favorable/unfavorable for attitude questions. Study data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using chi square test.

Results: Overall dentists were observed to have good knowledge for domains of awareness, general findings and risk factors. Good knowledge was found in MDS for domains of screening and diagnosis (64.65% and 50.51%) and treatment and referral (65.66% and 57.58%) in comparison to the BDS group. Favorable attitude for all the domains was reported while poor practice in all domains.

Conclusion: Dentists had favorable attitude towards OSA but poor knowledge in certain domains about OSA which may be linked to lacked clinical experience and hurdle in their practice. They were passionate about further education on OSA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Deranged Haematological Profile and Dyslipidaemiain Diabetes Induced Nephropathy

Ghazal Mansoor, Tahir Muhammad, Faheem Hadi, Tahir Maqbool, Sana Qanber Abbasi, Tania Ahmed Shakoori, Arif Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36059

Background: Diabetic nephropathy caused by complication of diabetes mellitus and frequently increasing in the developed countries. It may be characterized by dyslipidaemia and deranged haematological indices that play a role in the development of late complications of diabetes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop strategies to diagnose the patients of diabetic nephropathy during its acute phase.

Objective: To determine the haematological indices and the lipid profiles in diabetic nephropathy in comparison with diabetic controls

Methodology: The present study was performed on total of 300 patients where 150 DN patients and 150 control with age range from 30-50 years. The haematological profile was done via ABX Micros 60 haematology analyser, analysis of lipids, fats and fatty substances lipid panel was also performed in both groups. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS through t-test where p≥ 0.05.

Results: Current data indicated that the level of Haemoglobin A1c, Prothrombin time, White blood cells, platelet count, Low density lipoproteins and triglyceride is raised while significant reductions in red blood cell count and high-density lipoprotein levels have been noted in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to diabetics.

Conclusion: Our research indicates that both haematological and lipid profiles are highly disturbed in DN patients which may serve as a hallmark for early diagnosis of nephropathy in diabetics.

Open Access Review Article

China's Regulatory Change: The Evolution of National Medical Products Administration

M. Charmila, M. P. Venkatesh, N. Kavitha, Vedamurthy Joshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36051

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and review of the major regulatory changes that National Medical Products Administration has undergone in China since 2015 in order to accelerate new product production and registration in accordance with international standards, as well as to raise the profile of Chinese medical products on a global scale. China's regulatory structure has always been highly complex. China's health authority has been modifying the organisational structure in China in order to bring Chinese therapeutic products up to international standards in terms of suitability, safety, and dependability, as well as to more likely locate individuals' general prescription drug requirement and expand access to new drugs and treatments from around the world. By applying worldwide standards and technical criteria, enhancing review and approval transparency, and speeding up the examination and approval of new drugs, medical devices, and other items, all of the regulatory improvements are making it simpler to manufacture creative products. The Chinese Ministry of Health has also published instructions on medication development and technical evaluation, as well as the implementation of electronic common technical documentation and post-approval safety surveillance. Regulations for priority review and approval, a data protection system, imported medical product registration, and new product categorization have all been put in place to encourage the development of innovative goods. China's regulatory framework is in the process of being overhauled. In the near future, it is conceivable to accomplish simultaneous growth and approval on par with existing regulated markets.

Open Access Review Article

Organic Food: The Importance from Public Health Perspective

Jayesh Pawar, Vishnu Choudhari, Ganesh Choudhari, Prajakta Wagh, Girish More, Vanisree Ramanathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36055

Non organic food and chemical intake has been associated with a variety of infections and disorders, notably cancer, digestive dysfunction, headaches, ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), prenatal deformities, a compromised immune system and early mortality. Organic foods are pesticide-free and it is beneficial for overall health. Organic farming initiated 1000 years ago, once mediaeval farmers began cultivating along riverbeds based on natural resources. Organic food and food products are the finest healthy food which can be consumed without causing harm to body, soil nutrients, environment, or biodiversity. This approach quickly is becoming well-known because of its significance and importance from a public health perspective covering 20 to 30 % of India's entire agricultural area. Organic farming is an ideal type of agriculture when compared to chemical-based agriculture, since it reserves integrity of soil and environment while also providing high-quality agricultural products for a healthy lifestyle such as fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, and other foods. People nowadays are increasingly concerned about the nutritional quality of their diet. There is a need to do more research and analysis to rationalise and justify the value of organic food and food products, which are more nutritious and healthy compared to nonorganic or conventional foods. The comparative aspects of organic vs nonorganic farming along with biodiversity and environmental benefits of organic farming have been focused in this study. The present study also focused on the promotion of organic food consumption and its benefits from a public health perspective in the current scenario. The scope of organic food can be converted into revenue generation for better and healthier tomorrow.

Open Access Review Article

In Situ Gel Drug Delivery System: A Review

K. P. Dhanya, C. Siji, E. Jamshiya, P. Nihal, O. Deepthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29B36056

In situ gel forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before being administered to the body, but gel in situ from which the medication is released in a sustained and controlled manner. Temperature modulation, pH alteration, ions present in the site and ultraviolet irradiation are factors that influence gel formation. Gellan gum, alginicacid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly (DL-lactic acid), poly (DL-lactide co glycolide), and poly caprolactone are some of the polymers used to make in situ gels. Solvents such as water, dimethyl sulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin, and 2-pyrrolidone are utilized for these formulations, depending on the solubility of the polymer. Major routes of administration of In situ gels are oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable, and intraperitonial. In comparison to conventional drug delivery systems, in situ gel forming polymeric formulations provide various advantages, including sustained and prolonged action. From a manufacturing standpoint, such devices are less complex to produce, resulting in cheaper investment and manufacturing costs.