Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Common Congenital Anomalies among Neonates in Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-sectional Study

Noor Ul Ain Shaikh, Abdul Hamid Shaikh, Iqra Rafique Khokhar, Sobia Larik, Abdul Rehman Shaikh, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36028

Aim: To determine the frequency of common congenital anomalies among neonates in tertiary care hospital

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Children Hospital Larkana Pakistan from April to October 2018.

Methodology: One hundred twenty-four newborns with congenital anomalies were included in this study after taking parental consent. All the newborns were assessed by prenatal, natal, and postnatal history, general physical examination, and relevant investigations like ultrasound abdomen, echocardiography, and CT Scan Brain were done; Questionnaire was filled out immediately within 24 hours after hospital admission.

Results: The mean maternal age of the patients was 24.16±4.13 years. Central nervous system (CNS) anomalies were observed in 21% of cases. Neural tube defects like hydrocephalus 6.5%sacrococcygeal teratoma 2.4%, meningomyelocele 11.3%, and encephalocele 0.8%. Cardiovascular system (CVS) anomalies were found in 11.3% cases in which cyanotic 2.4%, (2 were Tetralogy of Fallot and 1 was Transposition of great arteries) Acyanotic 8.9% (10 Ventricular septal defects and 1 atrial septal defect). Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) Anomalies (39.5%) like, duodenal atresia (0.8%), anorectal malformations (25%), Pyloric Stenosis (0.8%), exomphalocele (5.6%), diaphragmatic hernia (2.4%), Hirschsprung disease (4.8%). Genitourinary system abnormalities (16.9%) like Hypospadias (14.5%), undescended testes (0.8%), cloacal exstrophy (0.8%) and hydrometrocolpos (0.8%). Musculoskeletal abnormalities (11.3%) like clubfoot (0.8%), developmental dysplasia of Hip (0.8%), polydactyly (1.6%) and cleft lip & palate (8.1%) of cases.

Conclusion: Congenital abnormalities are prevalent in our setup, and the CNS is the most commonly involved system, followed by the gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, cardiovascular system, and musculoskeletal system. The prevalence and pattern of congenital defects must be known in order for healthcare providers to create preventive interventions at various levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiepileptic Activity of Indian Filbert Fruit Extract in Experimental Animal Models

Jennifer Fernandes, S. Anusha, K. Vijay Bhaskar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36029

Aim: To screen the antiepileptic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Indian filbert.

Methodology: The cleaned, dried and powdered fruits of Indian filbert were subjected to extraction.Preliminary Phytochemical studies were carried out for the presence secondary metabolites.Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock induced seizures and metrazol (pentylenetetrazole) induced seizures carried out in experimental animals.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical studies showed the presence of steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates. Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of fruits were found to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg body weight Ethanolic extract of Indian (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) as well as protected animals from metrazol induced tonic seizures and the results were found to be significant (P=0.05) when compared to control

Conclusions: The presence of triterpenoids, steroids and flavonoid might be responsible for the antiepileptic activity of the fruit extract of Indian filbert.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of Parents about Online Learning and Physical Activities of their Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Qurratulain Rehan, Maria Shiraz, Mazna Toosy, Shahzaman Khan, Shahzada Qaisar, Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36030

The present study aimed to assess the perceptions of parents about online learning and physical activity of their children. A qualitative study was undertaken to determine the perceptions of parents about online learning during COVID-19 to get a deep insight into real-life experiences. Open-ended questionnaires were administered online to forty-five parents who could be accessed easily and had children studying in Grades 1-3. The major themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: increased monitoring role of parents, need of IT skills, provision of additional support from schools, challenging nature of online learning and sedentary behavior of their children. With a purpose of understanding perception of parents and their viewpoints about online learning, it was deduced that parents initially had to face many challenges but soon adjusted well with the new method of teaching as it was the need of hour during COVID-19 Pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of an HPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Remdesivir in Rat Plasma

Naidu Srinivasa Rao, Anilkumar Adimulapu, B. Nagendra Babu, G. Rambabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36032

Background: Remdesivir is an excellent drug for the medication of covid-19.So; it is an interesting method to develop a novel and reliable HPLC-MS strategy for establishment of  Remdesivir.

Objective: To develop a new rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method for the estimation of Remdesivirin rat plasma using D4- Remdesivir.

Methods: Separation was carried on Inertsil ODS column (150x4.6mm, 3.5µm) using a isocratic elution  with  a buffer containing 1ml of tri ethyl amine in 1Litre of water and the mixture of two components like Buffer and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 as mobile phase with 1ml/min flow rate at ambient temperature.

Results: Analysis was performed within 10 minutes over a good linear concentration range from 1ng/ml to 20ng/ml(r2 = 0.999) for Remdesivir .Precision and recovery study results were within the acceptable limit. Anelectro spray ionization source was used to study Remdesivir. This method has been successfully applied; exploring Remdesivir with its internal standard (D4- Remdesivir) was extracted from rat plasma using liquid-liquid extraction.

Conclusion: This paper focuses on the consistent evaluation of key bio-analytical validation parameters, including accuracy, precision, sensitivity, selectivity, and standard curve, quantification limits, range, recovery, and stability. In the case of chromatographic methods used in bio analysis, these validation parameters are defined, along with examples of validation methodology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of RBC Folate and Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Pakistani Women of Reproductive Age Group: An Approach towards Prevention of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

Iram Nazir, Maeesa Wadood, Sadia Nazir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Adil Ayub, Syeda Shabana Nasir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36033

Background: Folate and Vitamin B12 are important micronutrients necessary for fetal growth and development. Deficiencies of these vitamins in women of reproductive age results in adverse pregnancy outcome.

Objective: To determine red blood cell folate and serum Vitamin B12 levels in apparently healthy women of reproductive age group.

Methodology: The study was conducted in Baqai medical university, Karachi. Apparently healthy volunteer women (N=196) between ages of 15 and 49 years residing in different areas of Karachi were selected after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The cut off values for defining Vitamin B12 deficiency, marginal insufficiency and folate insufficiency were <203 pg/mL, 203-299 pg/mL, and <400 ng/mL, respectively. Analysis of red blood cell folate and serum vitamin B12 levels was done after complete blood count and peripheral smear morphology.

Results: The mean serum vitamin B12 and red blood cell folate levels were 233.69 ± 54.10 pg/mL and 540.34 ± 54.04 ng/mL. Percent values of Vitamin B12 deficiency and marginal insufficiency were 42% and 46%. All of the study participants had red blood cell folate levels >400 pg/mL. A significant negative association was present between age and serum vitamin B12 levels.

Conclusion: Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in women of reproductive age group can be considered an important etiologic factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes especially neural tube defects. The need is to asses pre-conceptional level of vitamin B12 and to implement public health program especially food fortification to improve vitamin B12 status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Aerobic and Anaerobic Field Tests on Physical Fitness of Female Athletes

Sumera Sattar, Yasmeen Iqbal, Shahzaman Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36034

Success in sports and many other group activities requires a total feeling of well-being as well as specialized and strategic skills in individual and team activities. One of the fundamental characteristics that influence athletic performance is viewed as PF. The main objective of this study was to analyze the impact of aerobic and anaerobic systems on PF of female athletes. This paper is a part of doctoral thesis and one of the objectives of this thesis was “to analyze the impact of aerobic and anaerobic fitness on the PF of female athletes”. The study used an experimental design with pre and post-test. Only female players of basketball and netball participated from two different universities namely “Lahore College Women University (LCWU)’ and “The University of the Punjab (PU)” from Lahore, Pakistan. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect data. In addition to demographic data, detailed information on health status was also collected through “Student-Athlete Health History Questionnaire” as part of the inclusion criteria. An equal number of participants were assigned to the control group (n=52) and the experimental group (n=52). . The training program started with a pre-test and the training was implemented three times a week for 8 weeks under the direct supervision of trained instructors at LCWU and PU on alternate days. The score of each training session was recorded for each participant in all the fitness tests, and a post-test was performed at the end of the training. Scores of the 20-meter shuttle run test were used to measure aerobic fitness. Mean scores agility and speed tests were used to measure anaerobic fitness. Mean scores of all the tests were computed to generate scores for PF. Mean comparisons were performed under descriptive analysis and Paired Sample t-test and Univariate Analysis of Variance was performed for hypothesis testing. Paired Sample t-test for all three fitness variables showed “a significant difference for aerobic fitness from pretest to posttest as t (207) = 0.89, p = 0.000 and a significant difference for anaerobic fitness was also found as t (207) =110, p = 0.000 and similarly, a significant difference for PF from pretest to posttest was found as t (207) = 95, p=0.000.” A significant impact of aerobic fitness on PF was found (F=3.08, p=0.000) and a significant impact of anaerobic fitness on PF was also found (F=2.36, p=0.005). The results of the study concluded that aerobic and anaerobic fitness showed significant improvement in PF of female athletes. Aerobic fitness showed significant effect on CRF, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility of the participants with no significant effect on BMI and anaerobic fitness showed significant effect on muscular strength and speed only.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Impurity-G Content in Levetiracetam Injection (100 mg/ml) by Using RP-HPLC Technique

Syed Mastan Ali, Ponnuri Bharath, V. Siva Ramakrishna, D. Ramachandran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36035

Extremely responsive technique for the quantification of impurity-G content in Levetiracetam samples by RP-HPLC method has been presented in the here manuscript. Quantification of impurity-G content in Levetiracetam sample by HPLC with UV Detector. Impurity-G was concluded by RP-HPLC technique by waters X-Terra MS-C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5µm) column as motionless segment. Column oven preserved 45°C and taster cooler temperature 5°C, injection quantity 50µL, flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, impurity-G was detected using UV detector at the wavelength of 200nm and run time was 30 minutes. The movable segment utilized pH 3.0 buffer and acetonitrile in the proportion of (850:150 v/v) isocratic mode. The technique legalization has been carried as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines (ICH). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was found 0.4122 µg/mL for impurity-G.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Leukoplakia among Patients Visiting a Private Dental Hospital- An Institutional Study

K. Ashwini, Reshma Poothakulath Krishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36040

Background: The oral ‌mucous‌ ‌membrane‌ ‌is‌ ‌an‌ ‌integral‌ ‌part‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌oral‌ ‌cavity‌ and oral‌ ‌premalignancy‌ plays an ‌intermediate‌ ‌stage. Oral‌ ‌leukoplakia‌ ‌otherwise‌ ‌called‌ ‌smoker’s‌ ‌keratosis‌ ‌is‌ ‌a‌ ‌potential‌ ‌premalignant‌ ‌disorder‌ and if not diagnosed early has a risk of causing oral morbidity and cancer. It ‌is‌ ‌a‌ ‌non-scrapable‌ ‌white‌ ‌patch‌ ‌or‌ ‌plaque‌ ‌which‌ ‌might‌ ‌be‌ ‌homogeneous‌ ‌or‌ ‌nonhomogeneous‌ ‌and‌ ‌is‌ ‌strongly‌ ‌associated‌ ‌with‌ ‌smoking, tobacco, alcohol‌ ‌consumption,‌‌ chronic‌ ‌irritation,‌‌ infections‌, and‌ ‌ultraviolet‌ ‌exposure‌. The etiology is idiopathic. The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in patients reporting to a university dental hospital.

Methodology: The present study was a retrospective observational study wherein 239 leukoplakia cases were reported to a private dental hospital located in Chennai from June 2020 to April 2021. Data was collected from DIAS and was tabulated in Excel. Data analysis was done in SPSS software Version 20.0. Descriptive statistics and the relation between variables were determined using the chi-square test where done. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The results of this study reveal that oral premalignant leukoplakia has a strong male predilection (95.4%) and the age group of 50-60 years (29.71%) was the most commonly affected when compared to the other age groups. This study further results that homogenous type (75.5%) of oral leukoplakia was commonly prevalent in the right buccal mucosa (29.29%) followed by the left buccal mucosa (23.43%) of the oral cavity associated with the history of excess smoking (38.08%). Pearson chi-square test shows p-value is 0.00, (p-value < 0.05).Hence, it is statistically significant. When association was done between the site of the lesion in the oral cavity by the number of participants, 28.03% of the male participants were presented with the lesion on the right buccal mucosa. Pearson chi-square test shows p-value is 0.99, (p-value > 0.05). Hence, it is statistically not significant.

Conclusion: The results of this study reveal that oral premalignant leukoplakia has a strong male predilection and the age group of 50-60 years was most commonly affected when compared to the other age groups.This study further results that homogenous type of oral leukoplakia was commonly prevalent in the right buccal mucosa followed by the left buccal mucosa of the oral cavity associated with the history of excess smoking.

Open Access Review Article

Ethosomes: A Novel Approach in Vesicular Drug Delivery Systems

Santosh Kumar Rada, Shubham Yadav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36036

Transdermal drug delivery is a dosage form that is applied topically to the skin layer (epidermis) which helps to deliver the drug into the skin layer before entering the systemic circulation. Ethosomes are soft, and flexible vesicles which helps in rapid drug absorption. Ethosomes have better pharmaceutical properties than the conventional liposomes such as room temperature stability, and improved compatibility with the Stratum Corneum barrier. Ethosomes are non-toxic in nature and can be used in the preparation of cosmeceutical and it has better drug absorption to the skin. The most common disadvantage of ethosome is that it might not be cost-effective. The ethosomal patches might not stick to all skin types. The mechanism of ethosomes is mainly occurred due to increased lipid fluidity within the cell membrane caused by the ethanol in ethosome. As a result, skin permeability is increased. Ethosomes can be prepared by using cold method and hot method. Ethosome consists of various evaluation parameters which includes permeability studies, drug content studies, interaction study between the vesicle and filter membrane. Ethosomes can deliver various highly lipophilic drugs like minoxidil, testosome, CBD, and other antibiotic drugs. The most widely used application for ethosomal formulation is to transport the DNA topically into the skin layer for gene expression and hence ethosomes are used in the delivering the vaccines by transdermal route. Additionally, a study in this field allows for improved regulation of medication release in vivo and long-term safety analysis, providing effective treatment. Ethosomal preparations have promising future in delivering bioactive substances via transdermal distribution. The discovery of ethosomes and vesicle derivatives was a crucial breakthrough in vesicle research. Ethosomes are preferred because they are non-irritant to the GIT tract and avoid first-pass metabolism.

Open Access Review Article

Carcinogenic Potential of E-cigarettes: Vapor Profile and Cellular Effects

Amy Hutchinson, Marwan ElBagoury

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28B36039

E-cigarettes are devices that vaporize a liquid made of polyglycerol, glycol, flavorings, and nicotine, for inhalation. Initially created for smoking cessation, the health risks of these devices are still not clear. This literature review compiles data on the chemical profile of e-vapor and cell exposure studies to formulate conclusions regarding cancer risk and provide suggestions for future research. The reviewed studies identified a large range of potentially harmful compounds, namely formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde, which were found in all studies. Metabolites of these compounds were then identified in exposed patients, showing bodily absorption. In vitro studies found evidence for cellular damage, including DNA mutations, reduced cell viability, and differentiated protein expression which may increase user’s cancer risk. Though the evidence is inconclusive given the heterogeneity of the field. Future studies should focus on the human effects of vaping, testing bronchial brushings and lavage fluid from users to determine the in vivo effects of exposure. Closely monitoring e-cigarette users for early warning signs of cancer would also help us understand future risk and answer questions about the safety of these devices.