Open Access Systematic Review Article

Nafamostat Mesylate in the Prevention of Post-endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography Pancreatitis: A Meta-analysis

Hyder Osman Mirghani, Abdelwahab Hassan Abdelwahab Hussien, Abdullah Suliman Al Atawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36021

Previous evidence from observational studies showed that Nafamostat mesylate (NM) was effective in post-ERCP pancreatitis prevention. We aimed to assess full-text prospective studies on the role of NM in post-ERCP pancreatitis prevention. We searched the PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles during the period from 2009 to November 2020 and updated on March 2022. No restriction regarding the language of publication. The keywords nafamostat mesylate, post-ERCP pancreatitis, prevention, and role were used. A total of 113 studies were identified through the database search, and eight studies (all were published in Asia) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. There were five control trials (four randomized and one comparative) and three case-control studies, (3186 patients included. In the present meta-analysis, seven studies concluded the benefit of nafamostat mesylate in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and one showed no benefit. The overall effect was highly significant, odd ratio, 0.51, 95%CI=0.38-0.70, P-value=0.0001, heterogeneity=0.17%, P-value for heterogeneity=0.30, I2=17%. Nafamostat mesylate might be effective in post-ERCP pancreatitis prevention. Larger randomize multi-center studies investigating the effectiveness in combination with other preventive measures are needed.

Open Access Case Study

Management of a Large Periapical Lesion Following Nonsurgical Retreatment and Low-level Laser Therapy: A Case Report

Soheila Darmiani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36019

Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. Long-term success of root canal treatment(RCT) is dependent on sufficient and appropriate cleaning and shaping of the root canal system along with 3 dimensional obturation. This article aims to report a non-surgical and orthograde endodontic retreatment of mandibular right central incisor with a large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin in a 51-year-old male. The signs (sinus tract) and symptoms ceased after treatment. Bone formation Complete healing of the periradicular lesion was observed at the two-year follow-up examination. The appropriate diagnosis of periradicular lesion and the treatment of root canal system allowed complete healing of large lesions without endodontic surgery.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluating Teaching and Learning Modalities in Higher Education: The Case of BAMS Students

Swapnil Borage, Bharat Rathi, Priyanka Shelotkar, Suvarna Dangore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36025

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, institutions were obliged to change the teaching methods, as conventional teaching methods were not adoptable for the legislations of COVID-19 protocols. Students in large number started enrolling in the online courses. The reviews about the effectiveness of the online teaching were mixed reviews when focused on academic achievement. Many learners and teachers also opine that, traditional teaching is still a better option to online teaching. Blended teaching is a way to unite the two teaching methods and can be useful in overcoming the shortcomings of both the teaching learning methods.

Objectives: To compare understanding of topic by final year BAMS students, using Conventional teaching, Online teaching, and Blended teaching.

Methodology: 70 students from final year BAMS, will be selected for the study, which will be taught by Conventional, online and Blended method, in rotation. A pre test and post test will be conducted to get the results.

Results: The data will be analyzed to identify the effectiveness of the teaching method, in terms of difference in the mean Pre test and Post test scores.

Conclusion: If found effective, educational institutions must adopt blended teaching method over traditional and online teaching method to the larger favor of students

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Mediations on Pain and Satisfaction Level of Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

Ayesha Javaid, Mah Gull, Iqra Tasleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36015

The main objective of the study was to analyse the level of mediations on pain and satisfaction level of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. This cross sectional study was conducted at Fatima Jinnah Medical University Lahore. The study was performed with 124 patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia aged 18-65, with no diagnosis of cancer, no chronic pain, hospitalized for at least 24 hour following the surgical procedure, undergoing elective surgery and agreeing to participate. The data was collected from 124 patients with mean age 18 to 40 years. The data was collected from both genders. Of a total of 124 abdominal-surgery patient subjects, 58.1% were male, 94.3% were married, 61.3% had undergone surgery, and 41.1% had undergone total gastrectomy. Among the 124 participants, 47 were included in the control group, 36 in experimental group. Regarding their general characteristics, no significant differences in any aspects were observed. It is concluded that preoperative nursing intervention for pain has positive effects for patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Economic Burden of Antibiotic Resistance Based on Anti-microbial Susceptibility Tests in Various Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Prospective Study

M. A. Lavanya, Khadeeja Nizamudeen, Parvathy J. S., Dhanya Dharman, Shaiju. S. Dharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 4-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36017

Introduction: Antibiotics are anti-microbial agents used for the treatment of various bacterial infections. Excessive use, inappropriate prescription pattern conduct to antibiotic resistance (AR). Antibiotic resistance leads to an increase in the cost of medical care. Our study assess the economic burden due to antibiotic resistance based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing in different infections.

Methods: The data for the study was collected prospectively and recorded in a data collection form specially designed for the study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria obtained from the Department of General Medicine, NIMS Hospital, Neyyattinkara, Thiruvananthapuram of patients with infectious diseases during the period of 6 months from April 2021 to September 2021.

Results: 128 patients were studied, 53.1% (n=68) were males and 46.9% (n=60) were females and the most frequent age range was between 46-60 years of age (35%, n=45).The most common infection seen in patients was urinary tract infection (20.3%, n=26). The socioeconomic status, (50%, n=64) belonged to lower- middle class. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done in (52.3%, n=67) and the patients with resistance (Rs.26530.81) had more mean cost than those without resistance (Rs.18412.01) showing highly significant difference (p=0.001). The resistant patients without antibiotic sensitivity testing had (Rs.30193.14).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the resistant patients without antibiotic sensitivity testing had a significantly higher financial burden. Therefore, we strongly recommend to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) in patients with infectious diseases. Also, patient should be well-informed about the details and the results of antibiotic sensitivity testing to ensure medication adherence and to avoid self- medication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Avocado Pear Peel (Persea americana) Extract

C. Umerie Sunday, H. Okorie Ndidiamaka, D. Dike Ugochukwu, I. Ani Njideka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36018

This study evaluated the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in Persea americana peel it also assessed the efficiency of Persea americana peel (Avocado Pear fruit peel) waste in different in vitro activities in order to explore the possibility of utilizing waste as a value-added product in various applications.. Quantitative phytochemical analysis was performed. Quantitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of alkaloids (56.5063 ug/ml), flavonoids (245.6875 ug/ml), phenols (15.65 ug/ml), tannins (27.03 ug/ml) phytate (9.68 ug/ml), oxalate (13.65%), saponin (22.73 ug/ml). For antioxidant activity, the peels of fruit sample of Persea americana were prepared in ethanol solution. The vitamin content of the peel extract was assayed using calorimetric and titration methods while the antioxidant enzyme assay was determined by spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant enzyme assay was also determined for catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. The Vitamins A, C and E were found to be present, with Vitamin A being the highest in concentration. Copper, Zinc, Iron and manganese were also present in the peel extract. The result from this study indicates that the peel extract of Persea americana possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical scavenger or inhibitor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Facile and Green Synthesis of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose Stabilized Bio-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Its Catalytic Activity

K. V. Padmavathi, M. Padma, Nowduri Annapurna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36023

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP’s)are synthesized in sustainable green method using Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) and employed as catalyst in the reduction of p-nitro aniline with NaBH4 to p-phenylene diamine. It is observed that the speed of reaction was fast due to their size, as particle size decreases surface area increases. It is also observed that the rate of reaction is fast with comparison with the other catalyst. This is because the nanoparticles have more effective surface area and posses less steric hindrance with p-nitro aniline and NaBH4 when compared to nanoparticles due to their shape. The recyclability of nanoparticles shows it is potential recyclable catalyst for industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Polymorphisms in Drug Transporters on Cisplatin Efficacy and Nephrotoxicity in Paediatric Osteosarcoma

Samaa Ramadan, Ahmed Nabil, Hadeer Ghonim, Asmaa Salama, Enas EL Nadi, Rania M. Labib

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36026

Introduction: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. Chemotherapeutic resistance to cisplatin represents such a significant barrier in the successful treatment of Osteosarcoma. The degree of nephrotoxicity and drug resistance (poor tumor necrosis) is associated with cisplatin accumulation in cells which is governed by Copper transporter protein 1 (CTR1) and Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). This study aims to determine the allelic frequency of CTR1 and OCT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in osteosarcoma patients. In addition, detect the relation between SNPs in transporters and cisplatin efficacy or nephrotoxicity.

Methods: A group of 120 pediatric osteosarcoma patients was recruited and genotyped for CTR1, rs7851395, and OCT2 rs316019. We detected the allelic frequency of the two gene polymorphisms. We defined good responders versus poor responders depending on tumor necrosis parameters and looked at nephrotoxicity and serum electrolytes according to CTCAEv4 using the Chi-square test (c2) and Kruskal-Wallis value, the odds ratio and confidence interval were calculated too.

Results: We found that the C allele in (rs316019) OCT2 polymorphism was the dominant allele, and patients with (C/C genotype) were the dominant genotype (72%). and the "A" allele is the dominant allele in (rs7851395) CTR1 and patients with (A/A genotype) were (39.5%).

Conclusion: the study had found that the "C" allele is the dominant allele in (rs316019) OCT2 and the "A" allele is the dominant allele in (rs7851395) CTR1, the study didn't find any significant relation between CTR1, OCT2 polymorphisms and cisplatin response or nephrotoxicity and farther multi center studies need to be done.

Open Access Review Article

Updates in Different Types of Keratitis: A Review

Zafar Iqbal, Wael Salamah Thiyab Alanazi, Talal Ahmed A. Albalawi, Abdulmajed Mohammad A. Alrawaili, Abdulaziz Salamah T. Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36016

Keratitis is the medical term for corneal irritation. The cornea is the front of the eye's dome-shaped opening. The iris and pupil of a person's eye can be seen through the cornea, which is usually clear. It is not difficult to diagnose keratitis; however, determining the cause is not always straightforward. Direct microscopy and culture reports are frequently unremarkable, and the patient must be pickedled on on clinical grounds. Depending on the origin of the infection, the treatment for infectious keratitis varies. Bacterial keratitis; If you have minor bacterial keratitis, sterile eyedrops may be all you need to get the illness under control. If your illness is moderate to severe, you may need to take antibiotics orally to get rid of it.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Chemically and Physically Synthesized Metal Nanoparticles to Staphylococcus aureus

Mohammed Ali Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i28A36020

The infections caused by S. aureus have emerged as a grave challenge to human health worldwide. Further, conventional antibiotic therapies for S. aureus-mediated infections are gradually becoming ineffective due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In search of alternative novel therapeutic strategies against S. aureus, the use of metal nanoparticles is proliferating. Among different synthesis methods of metal nanoparticles, chemical and physical methods are the most common. Despite reports of metal nanoparticles' efficacy against drug-resistant S. aureus strains, contemporary reports that the bacteria can evolve resistance to nanoparticles are a significant source of concern. There is also the issue of metal nanoparticle toxicity, which affects a variety of organisms. The clinical translatability of published research conclusions is another major hurdle in nanotherapeutics research. More research is needed to make nanoparticle-based treatments a viable and long-term therapy for infections caused by S. aureus. The present review provides an overview of the therapeutic application of physicochemically synthesized nanoparticles (electron beam, mechanical grinding, milling, spray pyrolysis, vapour phase synthesis, electrolysis, photochemical, solutions and gels, wound healing, anticancer, antioxidant, biosensing, cosmetics, antimicrobial, human health care and water treatment) of various metals (transition metals, post-transition metals, alkaline earth metals, rare earth metals, etc.) against various S. aureus strains.