Open Access Systematic Review Article

Decryption of DNA and Its Role in Treating Genetic Disorder at Early Stage

Gayatri Vaidya, Mohammad Chand Jamali, Snehlata Katheria, Juan Carlos Cotrina-Aliaga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35984

Aims: The aim of the study is to perform the task of decryption of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the role of such decrypted DNA for the treatment of genetic disorders at an early stage. The objective of the study is to analyze the utility of the decryption of DNA.

Study Design: Cross sectional study design.

Methodology: The numerous research papers that were utilized for the study were taken from online databases such as European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and GenBank. Research journals were taken from Google Scholar and ProQuest. Axial coding was performed to evaluate the thematic analysis of the study. Moreover, in this study, a total of 7 sources by Van Der Pol & Moliere , Li et al. , El Bairiet al., Ragusoet al. , Hager &Zienkiewicz, Herzog et al.  And North out et al. Have been chosen as the relevant selected journals for conducting thematic analysis. PRISMA method was used to reflect upon the several articles presented during the dissertation.

Results: The computation of DNA and its decoding from a particular sector of the body is eminent for studying the concept of the disorder of a particular sort. The abdominal aortic aneurysm is a fatal disorder. Being asymptomatic in nature, it turns deadly until it ruptures. It occurs due to the amplification of the “aorta”, which is the principal blood vessel delivering blood at the abdominal level of the body. Thus, Thus there is strong correlation between genetic disorders and DNA decryption the DNA decryption will unfold the treatment for genetic disorders.

Conclusion: The concepts of genetic disorders and the decoding of DNA are heavily intertwined. The decryption of DNA would lead the researchers to detect disorders early on and analyze their structural integrity to study it further.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Different Clinical Presentations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Tertiary Care Hospital

Nabiya Sandeelo, Gohar Ali, Muhammad Yahya Memon, Syeda Iffat Bukhari, Saliha Bano, Abu Talib, Syed Zulfiquar Ali Shah, . Kanwal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35975

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem, autoimmune, inflammatory disorder presenting with manifestations from various organ systems.

Objective: To determine the frequency of clinical presentations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at tertiary care hospital

Methodology: The cross-sectional study was conducted during 21st October 2018 to 20th April 2019 in the Department of Medicine Civil Hospital Karachi. Total 143 diagnosed patients were included. All patients were evaluated for the initial clinical manifestations including clinical investigations at presentation, Ocular, Mucocutaneous, Pulmonary, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Musculoskeletal, Hematological, Renal, Neuro Psychiatric, Gynaecological. Descriptive statistics were calculated and stratification was done. Post stratification chi square test was applied. p value≤0.05 was taken as significant.

Results: There were 18.9% male and 81.1% female patient. Mean age was 32.36±9.92 years. Mean SLE duration was 8.16±2.22 months. 79.7% were married and 20.3% were unmarried. In this study among major findings, 52.4% patients were found with fever, 79% with fatigue, 79.7% with arthralgia, 66.4% with weakness, 71.3% with body ache, 35.7% with decreased appetite, 40.6% with headache, 60.1% with photosensitivity, 67.1% with malar rash, 67.1% with alopecia, 60.8% with oral ulcer, 52.4% with Raynaud’s phenomenon, 52.4% with nausea/vomiting, 33.6% with diarrhea, 31.5% with arthritis, 37.1% with muscle atrophy, 35.7% with osteoporotic fractures, 38.5% with hemolytic anemia.

Conclusion: In this study, majority of patients presented with combination of fever, fatigue, arthralgia, weakness, body ache, photosensitivity, and malar rash.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction

Wajid Zahid, Akhtar Ali Bandeshah, Fazzal Aziz Mian, Fakhra Noureen, Abid Saeed, Javed Iqbal, Alishba Rasool, Amer Saleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35976

Introduction: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.  Present study is designed to gather data in our population about the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in STEMI. The gathered data will help in better understanding of association of STEMI and metabolic syndrome. This will also help the physicians to devise preventive strategies based on life style modifications to limit further progression of this syndrome particularly in individuals who are at higher risk for CAD.

Objectives: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients presented with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction.

Study design: Cross sectional study.

Duration of Study: 6 months (01-08-2018 to 31-01-2019)

Settings: Department of Cardiology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad

Subjects and Methods: A total of two hundred and fifty-seven (n=257) patients of both gender between age 18-75 years who were diagnosed cases of ST segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) were enrolled in this study. Fasting blood sugar, Serum TG, HDL, blood pressure and waist circumference was estimated and frequency of metabolic syndrome was evaluated.

Results: Metabolic syndrome was found present in 37.4% (n=96/257) patients as per our operational definition. Frequency of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in males as compared to females (P=0.048). No significant difference noted in the frequency of metabolic syndrome when data was stratified for different age groups (P=0.717).

Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome was observed to the highly prevalent among patients presented with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction and was significantly higher in males. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and In-silico Molecular docking and Pharmacokinetic Studies of Novel Heterocyclic Hybrid Dihydropyrazol-1-yl-2-(Quinolin-8-yloxy) Derivatives

Waikhom Somraj Singh, Kuntal Manna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35977

A novel heterocyclic hybrid dihydropyrazol-1-yl-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) derivatives were synthesized. By reacting 8-hydroxyquinoline 1 in absolute ethanol with potassium carbonate followed ethyl chloroacetate by conventional and microwave irradiation methods, precursor 2 were synthesized, further treated with hydrazine hydrates to achieve precursors 3 and by Claisen-Schmidt condensation methods, different chalcone derivatives 6(a-g) were prepared and to these precursors 3 was then cyclized to give the target compounds 7(a-g). The structures of the target compounds were evaluated by the spectral and elemental method of analysis. The screened compounds 7a and 7g produced better action than other compounds but somewhat lesser than the standard drugs. Furthermore molecular docking studies have been carried out against PDB codes: 5MTX (p38 MAPK) using Biovia Discovery Studio 2021. The compounds 7a (-8.947 Kcal/mol) and 7g (-8.994 Kcal/mol) had shown remarkable binding affinities which were greater than the binding affinity of recommended drugs; diclofenac sodium (-6.8 kcal/mol), and nimesulide (-7.8 kcal/mol).

Open Access Original Research Article

An in vitro Evaluation of Effect of Remineralising Potential of Marine Skeletal Specie Meretrixmeretrix Extract on Human Enamel

Vanita Dattatraya Revankar, R. Saranyan, Yadav Chakravarthy, E. Manivannan, M. Rajmohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35982

Background: To test the effectiveness of a marine skeleton specie - Meretrix meretrix (cockle shell) powder extract on human tooth enamel to remineralize a subsurface defect.

Methods: The study included 5 freshly extracted human 3rd molar teeth that were sectioned at the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). Later, each tooth coronal region was separated into four pieces of enamel blocks, yielding twenty blocks that were demineralized and categorised as follows: Cockle shell powder extract from Group I-subsurface demineralization. Group II: subsurface demineralization + clinpro application for a thirty-day period in artificial saliva. The samples were evaluated using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, micro hardness testing, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy for atomic analysis. The data was analysed using a one-way ANOVA and the Tukey Kramer multiple comparison test.

Results: In the cockle shell, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed calcium concentrations of 98.3 percent and 0.21 percent, respectively. Group II (Clinpro) has the greatest potential for speeding up the remineralization process, followed by Group I: CSEP (Cockle shell extract powder). Quantitative volumes of Ca weight percent and P weight percent are statistically bigger for both groups, according to the results of atomic evaluation. The remineralisation efficiency of Group II (Clinpro) was higher than that of Group A. (mussel shell extract).

Conclusion: Enamel subsurface flaws can be remineralized using marine shells with a higher calcium content.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Controlled Release of Nano Particle Liquid Medicated Formulation using the RP-HPLC Method for Determination of Norethindrone into Dissolution Media

G. Lino Steffy Aster, M. Vijey Aanandhi, S. Rama Chandran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35983

The determination of norethindrone can be done using a variety of approaches. Both sophisticated and validation strategies are included in this technique. The purpose of this research was to improve and test a smooth overturned segment-excessive standard performance liquid chromatographic technique for assessing norethindrone in dissolution media. The column is a C18 column from Thermo Scientific (250 mm x 4.6mm ID, 5m length). Deionized water, acetonitrile (50:50, v/v), and 5 ml/l acetic acid was made up with the cellular phase. The detecting wavelength was changed to 245 nm and the glide rate was changed to 1.3 ml/minute. The basic approach that was utilised was to investigate norethindrone release from a nanoparticle liquid medication device (LMF). The results showed that the procedure has become easy, precise, and particular.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Genres of Music on Blood Pressure among Different Age Groups

Pavithra Sekhar, A. Jothi Priya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35985

Many people listen to music during their day to day activities. Music is a combination of frequency, beat, density, tone, rhythm, repetition, loudness and lyrics. When we listen to fast beat music we get excited and slow beat music makes us to relax.There are different genres of music like rock, hip hop, pop ,classical, country, fazzy and these types of music has effect on blood pressure.The aim of the study is to know whether different types of music has effect on blood pressure or not. For this a cross sectional survey was conducted. This survey consisted of a self structured questionnaire. The sample size used for the study is 101. This standard questionnaire has been prepared and uploaded in google forms and circulated among the population, all the data were collected and the data has been analysed by using chi square analysis using the software IBM SPSS. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of different genres of music on blood pressure among the different age groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Crestal Bone Loss around Compression Screw Implants Placed in Healed Sites and Freshly Extracted Sockets

M. V. Ramoji Rao, Nirav R. Shah, Sathish Manthena, Divya Ramani Doppalapudi, Suneetha Koneru, Lakshmi Preethi P., Venkata Naga Sri Harsha Anumolu, Akhila Bikkina

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35986

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate crestal bone loss around immediate loading compression screw implants.

Study Design: A Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Method: In this randomized study, 15 subjects with 30 edentulous sites in the maxillary and mandibular anterior regions (incisors and canines) willing for replacement were taken into consideration. A total of 14 implants were placed in healed sites and 16 implants were placed in freshly extracted sockets and immediately loaded in both groups. Provisional restoration was delivered on the same day of implant placement. Crestal bone loss was evaluated at baseline (immediately after implant placement), 1 month, and 4 months. The final prosthetic restoration was delivered after 4 months following implant placement.

Results: No statistically significant difference for crestal bone loss was observed between delayed and immediate implant placement at 4 months interval.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, immediate placement of one-piece implant produced crestal bone loss comparable to delayed placement. The unique design of a one-piece implants eliminates the fixture abutment interface (microgap) and resembles the natural tooth with a seamless transition of the radicular unit to the coronal unit. Therefore, in the maxillary and mandibular anterior regions, one-piece implants with immediate loading can be considered as a viable solution for the replacement of missing teeth with better esthetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dialysis and Its Management in Younger Age Children in Pakistan

Hira Amjad, Ifrah Sharif, Eisha Fatima

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35987

Introduction: Pakistan is an agricultural nation that misses the mark on basic foundation to help ideal consideration of patients with ongoing kidney infection (CKD) and end-stage kidney sickness (ESKD).

Objectives: The basic aim of the study is to analyze the dialysis and its management in younger age children in Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore during 2021. There were 40 children who was chosen for this review. The mean dialysis term was 2.18±1.36 years (range: 1-7 years). All patients were on dietary protein limitation, 1 g/kg body weight each day.

Results: We collected all the demographic data of patients. The data was collected from 200 participants (from OPD, medical wards, dialysis center and kidney transplant OPD). The analysis of the demographic data found reveals the following results regarding age, sex, educational and marital status of the respondents: The mean (SD) age of the participants is 43.95 (1.68) years among the participants.

Conclusion: The commonness of CKD would have been a lot higher than the outcome got by this review, had the exploration utilized current degree of creatinine.

Open Access Review Article

Overview and Future Perspectives on Bone 3D Bioprinting

Claudia Todaro, Mirko Torchia, Marco Benazzo, Ruggero Rodriguez y Baena, Pietro Canzi, Saturnino Marco Lupi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26B35980

3D bioprinting is a prominent topic in the field of tissue engineering. The progress made in the last decade is remarkable, but the technology still shows many drawbacks and limitations due to the relatively short introduction. In this paper we summarize the major 3D bioprinting protocols such as material jetting, material extrusion, and vat polymerization, highlighting the pros and cons of each technology, then we analyze different biomaterials and various components of the bio-inks compatible with the available 3D bioprinters. The goal of this review is to examine the existing tools to produce bone scaffolds and highlight future developments in the field of Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) inside the oral cavity.