Open Access Short Research Article

Study of the Effect of Ademol on the Dynamics of S 100 Protein in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury

Sviatoslav Semenenko, Andrii Semenenko, Andrii Saienko, Natalia Semenenko, Nina Konovalova, Yuliana Babina, Halyna Nazarchuk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35945

Currently: the problem of choosing an effective drug approach for cerebroprotection, in case of traumatic brain injury (TBI), remains to be poorly understood. Clinical studies of cerebroprotectors - antagonists of NMDA-receptors indicate the feasibility of their use in practice. In our opinion, for further research, it would be correct to choose a compound that has neuroprotective properties and synthesized under the guidance of Academician M.O. Lozynsky at the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, a derivative of 1-adamantylethyloxy-3-morpholoin-2-propanol hydroxide (Ademol).

Materials and Methods: The pharmacological action of Ademol was investigated on the example of a simulated TBI at a dose of 2 mg/kg intravenously every 12 hours for 8 days. The control group and pseudooperated animals received NaCl 0,9% at a dose of 2 mg/kg intravenously (i/v), the comparison group received Amantadine sulfate 5 mg/kg. To determine the efficiency and activity of these molecules the activity of the protein S 100 was used.

Results: The dynamics of S 100 protein levels in groups of rats with Ademol and Amantadine sulfate with traumatic brain injury on the 8th day of observation indicates that on the background of the above therapy, the content of the studied marker decreased by an average of 50,8 and 39.9%. Treatment of rats with severe traumatic brain injury with Ademol at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i/v), was probably better than treatment of rats in the control group with saline and amantadine sulfate and better helped to reduce the growth of protein S 100 level, while Ademol exceeded the reference drug at 18,2% (p <0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Lycopene on Renal Tissue Injury in Celebrex Induced Albino Rats; An Experimental Research Study

Sadia Sundus, Asma Aijaz, Talat Samreen, Sarwat Fatmee, Shazia Fahmi, Hira Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35943

Objective: To analyze the renal tissue injury in Celebrex induced albino rats with improvement by lycopene. 

Study design: Experimental research study.

Abode of study: Animal House, Basic medical sciences institute, Karachi,

Materials and Methods: Celebrex and antioxidant agent lycopene were used in this experimental study. Drugs were administered orally to forty male albino rats weighing of around 250gm for research. Rats were retained in isolated cages and alienated into 4 sets including control, diseased, treated groups. The drugs were administered by gastric tube once24-hourly for four weeks.  After finalization of research work, rats were sacrificed and body tissues were preserved for staining.

Results: gB Gomori’s calcium phosphate stained sections showed marked deposition of dark black particles of alkaline phosphate in cellular cytoplasm of proximal convoluted tubules but gC showed scarce deposition of black particles of alkaline phosphate in the cellular cytoplasm of proximal convoluted tubules.

Conclusion: This experiment discloses that lycopene recuperate the raised level of alkaline phosphate in the cytoplasm of proximal convoluted tubules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of One-factor Design of Experiments (DOE) for Regression Modeling: A Robust Methodology

Soban Qadir Khan, Wan Muhamad Amir W. Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35948

In the present research era, high accuracy methods as a statistical analysis tool are increasing. Therefore, researchers are more focused to produce reliable and accurate results. Hence, the use of data modeling techniques is more focused to meet the needs of the current research trend. On the other hand, Design of Experiment (DOE) is extensively used among various scientific fields; however, its limitations do not allow these study designs for modeling purposes. Therefore, this study was designed to develop a methodology combining statistical methods that can provide to use one-factor DOE study designs for modeling and predictions. The addition of Fuzzy regression and multilayer feedforward (MLFF) neural network along with multiple linear regression would provide more accurate results with high accuracy. Furthermore, the developed methodology was tested on a dataset to test the methodology's performance and results provided that methodology provided regression models through MLR and fuzzy with high accuracy with the testing of the model's predictability through MLFF. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Development & Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Estimation of Dasatinib and its Impurities in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Y. S. R. V. S. Jogarao, Ponnuri Bharath, V. Siva Ramakrishna, D. Ramachandran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35950

Aim: The primary objective of the research work is to develop a effective, sensitive, economical and simple reverse phase HPLC method for the separation and quantification of Dasatinib and its impurities are described in tablet formulations.

Study Design: HPLC based quantification studies.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh between April 2021 and August 2021.

Methodology: Separation and quantification of Dasatinib and its impurities are done by using an Inertsil ODS-3V, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm and the mobile phase consists of two Channels A and B. Channel-A: pH 5.80 phosphate buffer : acetonitrile (90:10 v/v)   and Channel-B: acetonitrile : water (90:10 v/v). The flow rate is 1.0 ml/min. The column temperature was maintained at 25°C and sample temperature was maintained at 25°C, injection volume 10 µL and wavelength fixed at 320nm UV-detection.

Results: There is no interference of diluent and placebo at Dasatinib and impurities peaks. The elution order and the retention times of impurities and Dasatinib obtained from individual standard preparations and mixed standard preparations are comparable.

The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for Dasatinib standard 0.147&0.048 µg/mL, impurity-A 0.334&0.110 µg/mL, impurity-C 0.184&0.061 µg/mL,  impurity-D 0.136&0.045 µg/mL, impurity-E 0.089&0.029 µg/mL  and impurity-F 0.222 & 0.073 µg/mL respectively.

The linearity results for Dasatinib and all the impurities in the specified concentration range are found satisfactory, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99.Calibration curve was plotted and correlation co-efficient for Dasatinib and its impurities found to be 1.000, 0.9999, 0.9912, 1.000, 0.9932 and 0.9922 respectively.

The accuracy studies were shown as % recovery for Dasatinib and its impurities at specification level. The limit of % recovered shown is in the range of 80 and 120% and the results obtained were found to be within the limits. Hence the method was found to be accurate.

The method has validated as per ICH guidelines and all the validation parameters are satisfy the ICH Q2 specification acceptance limits

Conclusion:  The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision, linearity, ruggedness and robustness. Therefore this method has high probability to adopt in pharmaceutical industry for regular analysis of Dasatinib tablet formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiatherosclerotic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Woodfordia fructicosa Flowers

Vishweshwar M. Dharashive, N. B. Ghiware

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35951

In the present investigation the methanolic extract of Woodfordia fructicosa flowers at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated for antiatherosclerotic against high fat diet induced atherosclerosis and triton induced atherosclerosis. In high fat diet induced atherosclerosis several parameters of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG), lipoprotein profile such as low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), atherosclerotic markers such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and atherogenic index parameters such as TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc were determined and found to significantly altered in induction control group treated with high fat diet. The histopathological studies of liver and heart tissue were also performed wherein high fat diet showed toxic effects on cardiac and hepatic tissue. Similarly, in triton induced atherosclerosis parameters of lipid profile such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein levels were determined and were found to be significantly increased in induction control group. methanolic extract of Woodfordia fructicosa flowers showed protection against the atherosclerosis by bringing back the altered parameters to normal I both the models and showing ameliorating effects against high fat diet induced hepatic and cardiac damage. The multistep putative action of methanolic extract of flowers of Woodfordia fructicosa is attributed to the prominent phytoconstituents namely ellagic acid estimated through HPTLC analysis of the extract. Thus the study exhibited the protective effect of methanolic extract of flowers of Woodfordia fructicosa against atherosclerosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histomorphological Trends of Testicular Lesions : A Retrospective Study

E. N. Niveditha, Volga Harikrishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35952

Aims: Testis is affected by a variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Our study was undertaken to analyze the spectrum of all testicular lesions and clinical correlation with age-wise distribution, laterality, and clinical presentation of all testicular lesions.

Study Design: A retrospective descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Saveethe Medical College and Hospitals, over three years from January 2018 to December 2020.

Methodology: All testicular lesions sent to the Department of Pathology during this period are taken for the study. Histopathological slides were retrieved and all testicular lesions were reviewed.

Results: Out of 70 cases studied, 64 cases were non-neoplastic (91.42%) and 6 cases were neoplastic (8.57%). Right testis was more commonly involved in our study. Age distribution of non-neoplastic lesions showed the highest incidence in the 2nd decade of life (18.7%) followed by the 6th decade of life (15.6%) in our study. In neoplastic lesions, the 3rd and 4th decade of life shows higher incidence (33.4% respectively). Among non-neoplastic lesions, the most common histologic type is atrophic testis (31.2%). Among neoplastic lesions, the most common lesion is seminoma (50%).

Conclusion: Non- neoplastic lesions are seen in all age groups, whereas testicular neoplastic lesions are more commonly seen in the younger age group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Temperature Rise inside Pulp Chamber Using Two Different Provisional Restorative Materials

Osama Shaikh, Zeeshan Soomro, Naveed Memon, Muslim Khuhro, Mohd Rizwan memon, Sumera Jaseem, Hina Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35953

Aim: To compare the rise in temperature inside pulp chambers with two different provisional crown prosthesis materials.

Study Design: Comparative -in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics, Liaquat Medical University Hospital from AUGUST 2019 TO DECEMBER 2019.

Methodology: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mean rise in temperature during provisional restoration utilising Polymethyl methacrylate resin (PMMA) versus bis- glycidyl methacrylate resin (Bis-GMA) at in-vitro laboratory of Prosthodontic department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health, Jamshoro. A total number of 60 extracted maxillary central incisor teeth were selected using non probability consecutive sampling technique. Teeth were divided into two groups on the basis of fabrication material used. In group I; Poly-methyl methacrylate resin (PMMA) was used for provisional restoration and in group II; bis-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) was used for provisional restoration. Tooth preparations were performed following all the principles. Mean temperature rise was recorded and compared for both material over each tooth using radicular approach after placing the provisional restorations in impression mould.

Results: A total number of 60 teeth were selected, out of which 31 (51.67%) were right maxillary central incisor and 29 (48.33%) were left maxillary central incisor. On comparison of mean rise in pulp temperature between the PMMA group and Bis-GMA group, mean rise in temperature was significantly high in PMMA group; 40.59±0.56°C versus 39.40±0.53°C in Bis-GMA group (p-value <0.0001).

Conclusion: The mean rise in pulp temperature using Bis-GMA resin was significantly less as compared to the PMMA material. So Bis-GMA should be preferred over PMMA material for provisional restorations.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview on Implantable Drug Delivery System

Sandip Fulzele, Sunil R. Bavaskar, Bhushan P. Gayakwad, Jyotiram Sawale, Reenu Yadav, Vinod Gauttam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35942

Drug delivery systems that can sustain therapeutic medication doses that are pharmacologically efficacious for long time spans while also permitting "dosing-on-demand" would be immensely useful in modern medicine. Physicians can choose from a variety of precision delivery options, such as local or systemic circulation, while still ensuring appropriate dose over the duration of treatment with implantable drug delivery systems. These systems have several advantages, including focused local medication delivery at a steady and predetermined pace, which reduces the amount of medication required and the associated negative effects while boosting the efficacy of treatment. These systems are especially useful for conditions including Management of cardiovascular disease, TB, diabetes, cancer, and chronic pain, to mention a few, that require long-term medication or face issues with patient compliance. The first section of this chapter provides an overview of different implantable drug delivery devices, ranging from biomaterial-based to electromechanical. Techniques for optimizing medication delivery are also explored, including approaches to alter drug release patterns and the release kinetics process. After that, prospective therapeutic applications and biocompatibility issues will be briefly discussed. These systems' performance and related applications differ. The performance, functioning principle, fabrication procedures, and dimensional constraints of each technology are highlighted. We look at the current research on implanted drug delivery systems, with an emphasis on application and chip performance, as well as a comparison of passive and active delivery systems. Finally, this article sums up with an overview of implantable drug delivery systems' future prospects, particularly in terms of precision and customised medicine.

Open Access Review Article

Synthesis of Phyto Based Metal Nanoparticles: A Green Approach

M. Kezia Elizabeth, R. Uma Devi, K. Phani Raja, K. Bala Krishna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35944

In recent years, changing material properties is gaining a significant research interest. Besides, applying the fundamentals of basic science to different applications is also more encouraged and on-demand. In this view, material science has become a common interest in various fields, starting from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. The common platform for all these sectors is nanoscience and nanotechnology. The main motto is changing material properties while converting it from bulk to its nano size level. The changes in properties like optical, mechanical, and others make the synthesized nanomaterials for implementation in various applications for humankind. Besides the success of this idea, the toxicity of the materials used during the synthesis becomes a question to researchers, as it hinders the sustainable development concept. If not total, a certain decrement in the toxic material utilization gives a pavement towards green technology. In this view, various researchers adopted plant materials as sources for synthesizing the nanomaterial in this decade. The present review highlights the utilization of coinage metal (Ag, Au, and Cu) salt to synthesize nanoparticles by using plant sources like leaf, bark and their characterization study along with their applications.

Open Access Review Article

Omicron: A New Rise to Epidemic

Saima Mazhar, Farzeen Tanwir, Ayesha Mehwish, Samia Khalid Khokhar, Mariya Azam Khattak, Yasmeen Mahar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25A35949

The world has been suffering for the past two and half years since the emergence of the plague Covid-19, which has caused more than 5.57 million deaths globally. The new coronavirus Omicron variants following alpha, beta, gamma, and delta continue to spread. The virus, which was first detected in Botswana and South Africa in November, has since surged globally in the past few weeks, faster than any previously known variant of the coronavirus. Omicron has proven to be highly contagious and less receptive to vaccines compared with other variants. The aim of this study was to provide a brief outline of what we already know about the Omicron virus and what needs to be learned about the different variants of this kind.