Open Access Case Study

Revascularization Using Lesion Sterilization and Tissue Repair: A Case Report

M. Robert Justin, Snehal Ughade, Aditi Sarda, Pankaj Chavhan, Nutan Gutte, Pratima Kolekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23B35925

Clinicians encounter a variety of scenarios in which a permanent tooth has been damaged by trauma, followed by peri-radicular alteration, and is beyond the scope of typical endodontic operations to save. Because of the limited root length, it is difficult to keep a permanent tooth with an open apex. In today's world of modern dentistry, a new treatment option that is less intrusive and time-consuming could be advantageous to both the patient and the physician. The use of lesion sterilization and tissue repair for pulp revascularization is presented in this case report.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post Vaccination Side Effects of Different Available Vaccines among People of Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

Hira Akhtar, Saira Shahnaz, Muhammad Ali, Quratulain Legari, Maha Raja Dahar, Salman Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar Khalid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23B35875

Background: For the suppression of covid-19 virus development of vaccines are one of the foremost step but this rapid development enlarge the probability of side effects. In this study a questionnaire based survey conducted to evaluate post covid vaccination short term side effects.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to highlight the side effects of different available vaccines such as Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Sputnik, Sino-Pharm, Sinovac and Cansino-Bio in people of Karachi, Pakistan.

Methodology: A questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted between May - October 2021.Questionarre were prepared in Google form link of the form were distributed randomly through Whatsapp language of questionnaire was English. This survey had four sections which included socio demographic data of all Participants, health status, type of vaccine participants were vaccinated and post vaccination short term side effects among individuals were collected data were evaluated by using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: A total of (n=120) participants were taken part which included n= 42 (35.8%) males, n= 75 (62.5%) females and n= 3 (2.5%) transgenders. Participants which were diabetics and hypertensive included  n=1(2.38%), n= 2 (4.76%) males, n=3 (4%), n=3 (4%) females and n= 1 (33.3%) transgender however n=2 (2.66%) females were suffered from heart disease. Participants with liver disease and renal insufficiency included  n=2 (47.6%), n=1 (2.38%) males, n=2 (2.66%), n=3 (4%) females and n=1(3.33%) transgender. Participants received Pfizer vaccine included n=3 (7.1%) males, n=11 (14.6%) female  and n=1(33.3%) transgender whereas n=2 (2.66%) females and  n=1 (33.3%) transgender were vaccinated  by AstraZeneca. n=2 (2.66%) female participants  immunize by Sputnik. n=13 (30.9%) males, n=29 (38.6%) females and n=1 (33.3%) transgender were vaccinated by Sino-Pharm. n=17 (40.4%), n=28 (37.3%) and n=1 (33.3%) were immunized  by Sinovac vaccine and n=9(21.4%)males, n=3 (4%) females and n=1 (33.3%) transgender were vaccinated by Cansino-Bio whereas post vaccination Side effects such as pain at the site of injection were found n=27 (64.2%) in males, n=41(54.6%)in females  and n= 2 (66.6%) in transgenders, participants faced fever after covid vaccination  included n=14 (33.3%) males, n=23(30.6%) females another side effect like fatigue were reported by n=14 (33.3%) males, n= 21 (28%) females whereas side effect such as nausea and vomiting were reported by n=12 (28.5%) males , n= 13 (17.3%) females  and n= 1 (33.3%)  transgender, Abdominal Pain after covid vaccination were reported in n= 5 (11.9%) males, n= 6 (8%) females whereas diarrhea were reported in n=7 (35.7%) males  n= 12 (16%) females which subsided after few days or hours and no hospitalization were reported n=15(35.7%) males, n=28(37.3%) females reported that they didn’t experienced these side effects.

Conclusion: Side effects after Covid vaccination were predictable and mild such as pain at the site of injection, fever, fatigue, Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea these were common short term side effects which were subsided in few days or hours This questionnaire based survey is a preliminary study to evaluate short time side effects which  help in reducing vaccine hesitancy to some extent and clear conspiracies  such as insertion of microchip and infertility associated with Covid vaccines. However further surveillance program needed to evaluate long term safety profile of covid vaccine with large sample size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stress Induced Menstrual Cycle Irregularities AMIDST the Pandemic

Shazia Rani, Saira Dars, Marvee Soho, Naheed Akhtar, Khalil Kazi, Aatir H. Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23B35924

Background: The global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has yielded a variety of stressors (psychosocial) for the population, particularly women. The elevated stress may not only affect the wellbeing and health (physical and mental) of women, but also the reproductive status and menstrual cyclicity.

Objective: To determine the plausibility and mechanism via which stress (emanating from the COVID-19 pandemic) has impacted women's menstrual cyclicity.

Methodology: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from Sept 2020 to August 2021 upon a randomly selected sample of 1450 Pakistani women (aged 18 to 40 years). The data was collected using an online questionnaire containing enquiries pertaining to basic biodata, sociodemographic details, lifestyle patterns, medical & reproductive history, and stress score measured via the COVID-19 Stress Scales (CSS). The data obtained, was analyzed using SPSS v. 21.0.

Results: Among the females, 741 reported regular menstrual cycles, while the remaining 709 reported a disturbed menstrual cyclicity. The commonest changes included early or late start of the cycle (227), more aggravated menstrual symptoms (e.g., cramping, discharge and low back pain) (205), and menorrhagia (277). Individuals with aggravated symptoms of ill-timed cycles scored higher (cumulatively as average scores) on the CSS compared to their counterparts (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: After careful consideration of the results, it can be concluded that a significant association exists between the stress (emanating from the COVID-19 pandemic) and menstrual irregularity (p < 0.05). Stress relief may help alleviate menstrual irregularities in the current scenario.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC Method Development for the Estimation of Empagliflozin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation

Asmita V. Gaikwad, Preeti Khulbe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23B35926

An efficient and simple HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of Empagliflozin in marketed formulations. The mobile phase used for the chromatographic runs consisted of Water:ACN (55:45 v/v). The separation was achieved on a Symmetry, Waters C-18, 100 x 4.6 mm, 2.7 um, Poroshell 120 EC-C18, using isocratic mode. Drug peaks were well separated and were detected by a UV detector at 225 nm. The method was linear at the concentration range of 2–12 μg/ml for both the formulations. The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines concerning precision, accuracy, and forced degradation. Empagliflozin limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005938 ng/ml and 0.017813 ng/ml respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Sociodemographic Factors on the use of Supplementary Vitamins and the Follow Hygiene Rules in the COVID-19 Pandemic in TRNC

Şevval Çağdaş, Hasan Zafer Acar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23B35927

Background: In order to reduce the spread of the disease and death rates in the Covid-19 Pandemic, it is important to use supplementary vitamins that increase body resistance, such as vitamin D and vitamin C, and to following some hygiene rules. In the Covid-19 pandemic, some sociodemographic factors of the people in the community may affect the rate of use of such supplementary vitamins and the rate of follow some hygiene rules.

Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sociodemographic characteristics of people living in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) on the rates of supplementary drug use and follow the some hygiene rules during the Covid-19 Pandemic.

Materials and Methods: In our study, an online survey was conducted on 308 people voluntarily selected from TRNC citizens the results were compared and evaluated with the SPSS program.

Results: A statistically significant difference was found between some sociodemographic characteristics and the use of supplementary drugs and the following some hygiene rules during the pandemic period in the TRNC.

Conclusions: Responsible public institutions should carry out awareness-raising activities, especially for people who do not have social security, and health materials and supplementary drugs should be provided free of charge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teachers’ Attitudes and Knowledge toward Child Maltreatment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ali Mustafa Alhabrti, Ahmed Hussain Alherz, Raed Abdulaziz Alghirash, Mahdi Hassan Almisbah, Ali Fadhel Bin Ammar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23B35928

Background: Child abuse, along with the negative impact of it has affected many aspects of children’s lives. It is now prevalent that its prevention has become a global healthcare priority. Teachers have a great role to play, as integral part of the community, in the prevention of this phenomenon.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate teachers’ knowledge regarding their roles, their opinions on physical punishment, signs of abuse in children, and reporting policies.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted to 320 participants who teach in different educational stages and school levels located in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing the ability to recognize and evaluate different types of child maltreatment, knowledge of reporting procedures, and participants’ opinions on corporal punishment as a method of child discipline.

Results: Results showed a considerable improvement regarding the issue of child maltreatment among teachers. Female gender was associated with the level of significance in reporting procedures and other important legal issues surrounding child abuse.

Conclusion: Teachers reported having an awareness of their roles, the signs of child abuse and reporting procedures. Since the majority of them possessed a good level of awareness regarding the occurrence of child abuse, we encouraged them to take appropriate steps to learn how to identify different types of abuse and apply the knowledge gained through training and practical.