Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Ceftazidime Loaded Microemulsion for Parenteral Drug Delivery System

Bhushan Hatwar, Ashish Jain, Akhilesh Kumar Singhaii

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23A35867

The goal of this study was to develop a parenteral microemulsion formulation of Ceftazidime antibiotics. The ceftazidime sparingly soluble in organic solvent like ethanol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide were determined. For biological experiment, organic solvent- free aqueous solutions of ceftazidime (hydrate) are prepared by directly dissolving the crystalline compound in aqueous buffer. The peudo ternary phase diagrams of oil, surfactant, cosurfactants (Butanol/ Isopropyl alcohol mixture) and water were constructed to identify boundaries for microemulsion existence. Ceftazidime microemulsion particle size, solution viscosity and conductivity were evaluated. The microemulsion stability and haemolytic activity were examined after dilution in 5% dextrose solution for injection to 1 mg/mL ceftazidime. In vitro haemolysis studies indicated that Ceftazidime microemulsions were well tolerated by erythrocytes. The novel microemulsion formulation of Ceftazidime was developed that is suitable for parenteral administration. This new formulation could potentially have less vehicle-associated side effects that current commercial formulation of Ceftazidime based on Cremophor® EL and isopropyl alcohol solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Cytotoxic Effects of Silver Diamine Fluoride/ Potassium Iodide Agent on Human Peripheral Lymphocytes

Semanur Özüdoğru, Giray Buğra Akbaba, Fikret Özgür Coşkun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23A35870

Aim: To investigate cytotoxicity effect of different concentrations of Silver Diamine Fluoride/Potassium Iodide agent on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Materials and Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the effects of SDF (0.38%, 3.8% and 38%) and KI (4%, 58.3%) on cell viability on human lymphocytes after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of incubation.

Results: MTT test results demonstrated that cell viability decreased as concentrations of SDF increased. 0.38 % SDF was observed to induce the highest cell death after 72 h of contact. At 3.8 % and 38 %, SDF were found to be cytotoxic on human lymphocytes at all application periods.  KI solutions at 4 %, 58.3 % concentrations did not show cytotoxicity effect at 24 h exposure, conversely, which resulted in cell proliferation, while moderate cytotoxicity was observed at incubation periods for 48 h and 72 h.

Conclusion: SDF was found to be cytotoxic to human peripheral lymphocytes at all three concentrations and at all exposure times.  KI solutions showed cell proliferation in the first 24 hours, which is important in determining the protocol for the use of this solution in clinical procedures, especially in dentistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis of Determinants of Family Dynamics of Children with ADHD with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

Moin Ahmed Ansari, Syed Habib Naqvi, Mohammad Rafiq, Ali Mohammad Waryah, Aatir H. Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23A35871

Background: Comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most actively studied topics in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Among clinic-referred children, comorbidity is frequently found between ADHD and conduct disorder (CD). However, little is known regarding the probable association between the co-occurrence and external factors. One factor that has recently sparked interest is family dynamics.

Objective: To compare the children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  with and without co-morbid conduct disorder (CD) in terms of selected determinants of family dynamics and the influences of catchment area and gender on these differences.

Methodology: This case-control study was conducted upon a sample of 114 pre-diagnosed ADHD children from July 2017 to June 2019 at the Liaquat University Hospital & Sir CJIP. After taking written informed consent from parents of children diagnosed with ADHD, the children were re-evaluated using the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM) - V criteria. Vanderbilt Parent Rating Scale was also used to screen for possible comorbidities with ADHD. Children with intellectual disability were excluded from the study. Family dynamics like family type, family size, socio-economic status, parental educational and occupational status, family relationships, parental discord, and history of psychiatric illness in family were explored via self-structured interview-based questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS v. 21.0.

Results: The cumulative mean age of the sample of ADHD children stood at 7.6 years (SD ± 0.52). Most of the sample of the children hailed from urban (64.3%) areas and were raised in joint families (71.4%). Consanguinity was common among the parents (72.8%) and especially prevalent among the ADHD children with co-morbid CD. The key features that were notably high among families of the children with comorbid CD included positive parental psychiatric history, ADHD among siblings and parental discord.

Conclusion: After careful consideration, it can be concluded that consanguinity of parents, joint family system. And family history of psychiatric disorder affects the occurrence of comorbidity of conduct disorder among children with ADHD. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Inflammatory Markers with Metabolic Syndrome among Pre & Post-menopausal Women

Khalida Shaikh, Shabnam Aijaz Khowaja, . Marvee, Ghulam Nabi Pathan, Bilal Razaque Memon, Areeba Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23A35872

Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) comprises of an array of clinical, physiological, metabolic and biochemical disturbances; associated with a systemic inflammatory response. The debilitating condition entails high morbidity and mortality and thus it is important to identify and resolve it timely; a goal which may be achieved with the help of biomarkers. Fibrinogen and hsCRP; highly sensitive C-reactive protein, are found to be increased in acute inflammations. The raised quantity is indicative of underlying inflammatory states and thus may be relevant to MetS.

Objectives: To determine the association of inflammatory markers with metabolic syndrome among pre & post-menopausal women.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a sample of 278 women (aged at or above 25 years) presenting to the Outpatient Department of General Medicine and the Obstetrics – Gynecology at Liaquat University Hospital (Hyderabad) from 01-02-2020 to 01-10-2020. Data was collected using a structured interview-based proforma which include information about biodata and sociodemographic details of research participants and biochemical analysis (CRP, DLC and fibrinogen and insulin measurement).

Results: In this study a cumulative MetS prevalence was found out to be around 60% (63.7% as per IDF criteria and (57.6% as per ATP-III classifications). Women with MetS had higher levels of CRP and fibrinogen. Women with high fibrinogen levels and CRP suffered with more type of metabolic abnormalities.

Conclusion: The findings of this studies showed that with total body fat and fat percentage, body mass-index, have a positive association with the studied inflammatory markers (CRP and fibrinogen).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Sinopharm and Sinovac COVID-19 Vaccination Adverse Effects among the Population of Karachi: A Survey Based Study

Ata Ur Rehman, Kiran Khan, Jai Dev Maheshwari, Ghazala Nasim Pasha, Fatimah Kamran, Nazrah e Zahrah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23A35874

Introduction: Vaccines function through a variety of methods to provide disease protection; nevertheless, the process of establishing immunity can create side effects.

Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the acute side effects of two COVID–19 immunizations that are commonly used in the Karachi population.

Materials and Methods: Between August and September of 2021, a cross-sectional analytical survey was carried out. The 291 immunization recipients were asked to complete a survey concerning the vaccine's side effects. The Chi-Square test was used to compare the post-vaccination side effects of categorization groups. A p-value of ≤0.05 was statistically significant.

Results: Among post-vaccination side effects, fever was reported by 32.3% of the participants, followed by fatigue, redness at the injection site and gastrointestinal disturbances. The results show association of minor adverse effect with Gender and history of COVID infection.

Conclusion: In conclusion, vaccines are a potent weapon for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, with high efficacy and low adverse reactions. The most common side effects of the Sinopharm and Sinovac vaccination was found to be fever, and there was a linear association between the presentations of most of the adverse effects and the history of Covid-19 infection.

Open Access Review Article

Intestinal Obstruction Etiology, Diagnosis and Management

Haider Osman Ibn Idris Elmisbah, Abdulazez Aweed Mehdy Alonezy, Sulaiman Turki Arfaj Alanazi, Sultan Nawi Arfaj Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i23A35873

Bowel obstruction is a leading cause of illness and mortality in the United States. Mechanical intrinsic luminal blockage or extrinsic compression are the causes of bowel obstruction. A full blood count and a metabolic panel must be performed on patients with suspected blockage in the laboratory. Patients with simple emesis may develop hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Dryness is associated with higher blood urea nitrogen levels, as well as increased haemoglobin and hematocrit levels. It's possible that your white blood cell count will rise. When the forward movement of intestinal contents is interrupted, acute intestinal blockage occurs. This disruption can occur anywhere throughout the gastrointestinal tract's length. The treatment of intestinal blockage focuses on reversing the physiologic changes caused by the obstruction, bowel rest, and eliminating the obstruction's source. The goal of this study is to learn more about the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal blockage.