Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Low Back Pain in Obese Patients

Rahul Agola, Nareshkumar Dhaniwala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22A35855

Low back pain, a very common presenting complaint in orthopaedic Outpatient department is caused by various factors such as strenuous physical work, Poor Posture, Trauma, Age related degeneration of vertebral joints and various diseases of ligaments and bones. Overweight and Obesity cause changes in Posture and biomechanics of lumbar spine function and weight transmission. Relationship between low back pain and Obesity requires study to learn about its causation and its effect. This study is an attempt in this direction by measuring the parameters of Body mass Index and its effects on Lumbosacral angles.

Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of Different Parenting Styles on Dentist’s Treatment Plan

Ivan Obadiah, E. M. G. Subramanian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22A35851

Every paediatric dentist desires to treat their patients in a stress and anxiety free environment. All steps including diagnosis of the condition, explaining the existing dental status to the patient and treatment planning are based on the mental attitude of the patient and how the dentist reciprocates it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of different parenting styles on the dentist’s treatment plan. A convenience sample size of parent-children pairs were selected as participants. Analysis of the mental attitude of the parents was carried out from the very first instant the parent-child pair walked in the dental office. The parents were classified into the four categories of parenting styles which are, authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and uninvolved. 83% of the parents accepted the treatment plan without any signs of hesitation or doubt; whereas 17% of the parents denied the treatment option suggested by the dentist or accepted after lots of questions and hesitation. Parenting styles has no influence on dentist’s treatment plan. Parenting styles cannot be used efficiently to classify parental mentality in pediatric dentistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Is Decline Possible in Congenital Heart Defects by Adjusting Avoidable Risk Factors?

Pushpa Goswami, Waseemullah Sheikh, Farhana Rajpar, Nayab Qazi, Bibi Rabia, Fahmida Gul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22A35849

Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the leading causes of birth defects-associated morbidity and mortality with incidence variable with geographic locale, race, family history and gender of the baby.

Material and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 96 infants after ethical approval; infants of both genders with diagnosis of CHDs were registered. After complete history and physical examination type of anomaly observed was confirmed by echocardiography. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 Chi square test was applied for comparison of categorical variables, p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: During study period total 96 patients were examined. Significant association of various types of CHDs with cousin marriage, lack of folic acid intake and positive family history were observed on Pearson chi-square statically significant p-value (<0.01) was observed shown in tables.

Conclusion: Further studies on modifiable risk factors on big sample size will be very helpful in decreasing the load of CHDs, and patients can also be facilitated with early diagnosis and management. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Basal Cell Carcinoma: In Tertiary Care Center, Demographic Details and Histological Subtypes at Pumhs-W Nawabshah, Pakistan

Shazia Bano, Kousar Parveen, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed, Hina Sabeen, . Sikander-e-Azam, Nazia Azam Yousufani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22A35850

Background: Skin malignancies are more common in fair-skinned persons, but their increasing incidence is alarming in our population.

Objective: To evaluate the Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) in a tertiary care center, in terms of frequency, age, sex, sites, and histological subtypes.

Methods: A retrospective work was conducted in the Dermatology and Pathology departments, Peoples University of Medical & Health Sciences, Nawabshah, from November 2020 to November 2021, total 100 cases collected by nonprobability consecutive technique, all the patients included reported at the outpatient department during one year period. All the clinical demographic data was collected in the Dermatology department and the biopsy sample was processed in the Pathology department. The observations were recorded on a structured proforma, statistically analyzed on SPSS 20 and the results were tabulated.

Results: A total of 100 cases were assessed, the age of patients ranged from 22-86 years with a female preponderance. Most of the cases were detected in the 61-80 years age group. Cheek was the most common site. The nodular/solid variety was diagnosed in most cases (54%).

Conclusion: In all the histological subtypes about both genders the density of BCC was relatively higher over the face, followed by the trunk. The nodular/solid variety is more common.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Neck Circumference with Other Anthropometric Indices and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Young Adults

Mevo Khan Zardari, Zulifiquar Ali Laghari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22A35853

Objectives: To study the importance of neck circumference (NC) for the early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and to determine the association of NC with other anthropometric parameters and CVD risk factors.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2018 to June 2019. Total 610 healthy young adults male and females, aged from 18 to 35 years and permanent residents of Shaheed Benazir Abad District of Sindh were randomly selected. Those who had any type of illness, known diabetes and on any medication were excluded from this study. The data including, Socio-demographic, Anthropometric and Biochemical was collected through interview based structured questionnaire which was designed through review of literature of previous studies. Blood pressure was measured by using sphygmomanometer. The blood sample was collected in the morning timings while participants were fasting. The blood sample was analyzed for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile using standard kit methods and according to manufacturer’s instructions. Neck circumference was measured at the upper edge of the thyroid ligament by a non-versatile measuring tape. Consent was obtained before collecting the data, SPSS 18 version was used for the statistical analysis of data.

Results: Out of total 610, 313 (51.3%) were male participants and 297 (48.7%) were female participants. In male, NC was positively correlated with SBP (r=0.589), DBP (r=0.586), FBS (r=0.358), TG (r=0.606), LDL (r=0.590) and VLDL (r=0.606), however, NC was negatively correlated with HDL-C (r=-0.434). Similarly, in female, the NC was positively correlated with SBP (r=0.552), DBP (r=0.672), FBS (r=0.437), TG (r=0.610), LDL (r=0.592) and VLDL (r=0.610) and LDL(r=0.590) however, NC was also negatively correlated with HDL-C (r=-0.-526) in females. All other CVD risk factors showed significant association with increased NC in both male and female participants.  

Conclusion: Neck circumference is positively correlated with CVD risk factors in both male and female participants, NC is easy and quick to measure and it can be used as an alternative of other anthropometric parameters.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Approaches of Drugs and Vaccines Used in COVID 19: A Review

S. Sivakumar, K. Kathiresan, P. Pandian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22A35848

A novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus developed in December 2019, triggering a life-threatening pneumonia outbreak in China, and has since expanded worldwide, producing a pandemic. Because of the urgent need to control the disease and the dearth of specific and effective treatment options, FDA-approved medicines that have proven efficacy against comparable viruses are being used. In vitro, chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin are effective at inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. The preliminary findings of a variety of clinical trials utilising various chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine delivery procedures all indicate a positive outcome. They may not be effective in cases of consistently high viremia, and data on ivermectin (another antiparasitic medication) is currently unavailable. Intriguingly, azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine may provide therapeutic benefits. Favipiravir, tocilizumab, and azithromycin types are among the other treatment options being investigated.