Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol on Effects of Breast Caps on Breast Engorgement among Postnatal Mother

Anita K. Kale, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21B35844

Breast  Engorgement  is  defined  as  the  physiologic  process  of body  in  postnatal  mothers following birth, having sign and symptoms of painful swelling of the breast combine with sudden increase in milk volume. Resulting in Lymphatic and vascular blockage or obstruction and interstitial oedema, if not treated complications of nipples and  breast arise such sore nipples, blebs, mastitis and plugged milk ducts. Pharmacological and alternative methods are available to manage breast engorgement. Hot and Cold compresses showed overall benefits without having side effects. but seeing the shape and contour of breast, hot water bag being flat does not fit to breast to give comfort to mother and also its rubber material cause irritation and  allergic.  The  objectives  of  this  study  are  to  develop  Breast  Caps  and  study  its effectiveness for  management  of Breast  Engorgement. In this study research approach is Qualitative, Intervention study design, simple random sampling techniques is used to allocate 125 samples  in experimental and  100  in control group. Experimental group will receive application of Breast Caps having temperature 43-460F, 10 -15 minutes, thrice a day for three consecutive days and  control group  will receive application of Hot  Water  Bag.  Primary outcome will be development of Breast Caps and secondary outcome will be to study the effectiveness  of breast  caps  which  will  show  reduction  in  sign  and  symptoms  of  breast engorgement   and   pain   level   assess   by  using   6point   self-rating   breast   engorgement scale(SPES) and visual analogue pain scale (VAS). Ethical approval was obtained from IEC, DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2020-21/8387.The  study  result  and  data  will  be  disseminated  in  peer- review publication. The study result will be concluded that Breast Caps can be comfortably and  effectively  used  for  management  the  condition  of  Breast  Engorgement  in  postnatal mothers in hospitals and also in home settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Celiac Disease in Type 1 Diabetic Children Presenting at Tertiary Care People Medical College Hospital Nawabshah Pakistan

Ameer Ali Jamali, Azizullah Langah, Naseer Ahmed Memon, Badarudin Almani, Safdar Ali Jamali, Attiya Ayaz, Durga Devi, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21B35842

Objective: The goal of this research has been to find out how common celiac disease is in type 1 children with type 1 diabetes who visit multispecialty hospitals.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional research. This study was directed at Pediatric Medicine Department, Mother and Child Healthcare (M&CH) ⁄ People Medical College (PMC) Hospital Nawabshah Shaheed Benazeerabad. The length of research was from 07/09/2020 to 06/03/2021, (6 months) next to the authorization of synopsis. Current research included 124 children of together sex aged between 1 to 12 years diagnosed of Type-I diabetes mellitus who were assessed for concomitant presence of celiac disease which was labeled on duodenal biopsy revealing crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy. Frequency of celiac disease was noted and compared across various subgroups of diabetic children based on age, gender, duration of diabetes, BMI and glycemic control. Each kid's parents signed written consent form.

Results: The average ages of the children were 8.6±2.6 years. The majority of the children (n=68, 54.8 %) were aged 10 and over, preceded by kids aged 6-9 years (36.3 %), and children aged less than 5 years (08.9%). There were 56 (45.2%) boys and 68 (54.8%) girls with boys to girls ratio of 1.1.2. The average lengths of diabetes were 03.2±1.4 year. 51 (41.1%) children had poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8.0%). Celiac disease were established in 14 (11.3%) youngsters having Type-I diabetes. Statistically no substantial variance in the frequency of celiac disease across various subgroups of Type-I diabetic children based on age (p =0.966), sex (p =0.854), length of diabetes (p-value=0.985), BMI (p =0.835) & status of glycemic control (p =0.889).

Conclusion: A significant number of children with Type I diabetes had celiac disease in the current study, indicating that regular screening of diabetic children is necessary for prompt detection and management of celiac disease in upcoming clinical settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Level in Women with Severe Preeclampsia: A Cross-sectional Study

Nadia Hameed, Yasmeen Bibi, Shehreen Memon, Sanam Channa, Muhammad Ali Memon, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21B35845

Aim: To determine the frequency of raised lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in women with severe preeclampsia.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from June 2018 to December 2018.

Methodology: There were 141 primiparous women with severe preeclampsia, included in this study. After taking history regarding hypertension and obstetrical examination, patients were subjected to a relevant investigation that is, 5ml of blood sent to an institutional laboratory for the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, if it is >400 U/L then it was labeled as raised.

Results: The frequency of raised lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (400 U/L) was 13.48% (19/141) women with severe preeclampsia.

Conclusion: About 14% of women having Pre-eclampsia had raised lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. Severe preeclampsia is associated with severe multisystemic involvement. Raised LDH levels are indicative of cellular damage and severe hypertension in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Homocysteine Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Eram Pathan, Ashok Kumar Lohano, Muhammad Saleem Rind, Anwar Ali Jamali, Attiya Ayaz, Durga Devi, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21B35846

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of elevated homocysteine levels in acute ischemic stroke patients presenting to the medical department, civil hospital, Nawabshah.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine Civil Hospital, Nawabshah from 13/02/2021 to 12/08/2021. It included ischemic stroke patients and evaluated their homocysteine levels (≥15µmol/L were elevated). Homocysteine levels was compared then in relation with the other sub-groups of patients based on the age group, gender and obesity, smoking, hypertensive and diabetic status, and hyperlipidemia.

Results: There were 171 (64.5%) males and 94 (35.5%) females with mean age 49.9 ± 5.8 years Elevated levels of homocysteine were recorded in 140 (52.8%) patients with acute ischemic stroke. The frequency of elevated levels of homocysteine across various subgroups of patients in relation to age, gender, obesity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia was found to be insignificant.

Conclusion: The findings of this study show patients with acute ischemic stroke had elevated levels of homocysteine which suggests potential implications of homocysteine level assessment in the diagnostic workup as well as risk stratification and management planning of patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting in future medical practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-PDA Method for the Determination of a Novel Antipsychotic-Blonanserin in Bulk and its Tablet Dosage Form

Aditi Pal, Suman Acharyya, Samiran Sadhukhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21B35847

To develop a new ultra-high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique for determining Blonanserin concentrations in APIs and tablets. A DIKMA Endoversil (2.1 x 50mm, 1.7µm) column with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and an eluent measured at 237 nm was used for the chromate-graphic separation. Phosphate buffer, pH 4.2, and acetonitrile (25:75) were used as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method was approved in accordance with the principles established by the International Conference on Harmonization. Blonanserin was eluted in this process with a retention time of 0.607 minutes. Blonanserin calibration curve plots were shown to be linear for the concentration ranges of 1-75 µg/mL. The quantification limit was 0.25 µg/mL, while the detection limit was 0.05 µg/mL. Despite the fact that the current method was found to be effective in the analysis of Blonanserin in a force degrading state, the percent assay of the marketed dosage form was found to be 96.80%. All of the study results' experience pieces of evidence demonstrated the usefulness of Blonanserin estimation in API and tablet formulation.

Open Access Review Article

Wearable Devices and mHealth: The Significant Applications in COVID 19 Pandemic

Ganesh Choudhari, Prajakta Wagh, Vishnu Choudhari, Ashwini Gawade, Ranjit Gadhave, Chandrashekhar Bobade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21B35843

Wearable devices (WDs) and mHealth (Mobile Health) give you the healthcare services, overcoming geographical, temporal or even organizational obstacles. Wearable technologies will have non-encroaching and sovereign devices that collect save and examine physiological information that will certainly help to improve patient health. It has been used so far for fitness purposes. But with increasing demand by patients and health care workers, wearable devices have also been developed to monitor patient health-related issues. It collects and analyses data. In some scenarios makes a sensible decision and provide a suitable response to the users. Now a day, mobile applications have also proven effective in the field of medicine with the motto of giving personalized treatment to disease control. Advanced technology in wearable gadgets has become a great aspect of our day-to day life in addition to the health care industry.

A global pandemic that the world is facing in the form of COVID19 has come up with the importance of clinical research and technologies which help to tackle COVID 19 infection worldwide in an exceptional manner. While expected results have been found on effective use of wearable devices and mHealth systems to study the structure of COVID 19 and upcoming infectious ailment. The objective of this review is to test permitting technologies and structures with diverse utility to deal with the COVID 19 disaster. This review acknowledges the researchers of the wearable devices and mHealth systems which proved their significance in the present pandemic. Also, this review explains the exceptional tracking devices, which include heart rate, temperature and oxygen monitoring that, are used to diagnose COVID 19 patients.