Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on Handgrip Strength: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ha’il, Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim, Hamad Ali Hakami, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21A35833

Background: in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, there is a loss of muscle mass due to chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and metabolic acidosis, these factors lead to decreased physical fitnessand poor clinical outcomes. Handgrip strength (HGS) is an index for physical function, the aim of our study   was to investigate the relationship between CKD and handgrip strength (HGS) in Ha'il, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 251 CKD patients in Ha'il, Saudi Arabia.132 males and 119 females, aged between 25 and 65 years. Renal function (creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen) and Hand grip strength (HGS) were recorded for all patients.

Results: 3.2 kg/BMI for males and 1.8 kg/BMI for women were the average relative HGS (kg/BMI). In both sexes, HGS was inversely correlated with age and height and positively correlated with body weight and BMI, whereas the opposite was true for relative HGS.

Conclusions: Relative HGS is an effective way to quantify muscle strength in chronic renal disease patients based on their body mass. As a result, relative HGS may be a valuable and cost-effective method for the detection of kidney disorders that are chronic in nature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marginal Bone Level and Bone Quality Evaluation Using CBCT after Functional Loading around Dental Implant in the Population of Bhubaneswar, Odisha: A Longitudinal Study

Snehjyoti Jha, Jugajyoti Pathi, N. C. Sangamesh, Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Abhik Sikdar, Monalisa Dash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21A35834

Introduction: The importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the field of Implant Planning is a rapidly emerging imaging modality for the purpose of implant planning. Having the obvious benefits over the conventional methods of radiography, CBCT by far is the most promising aid in the efficient implant-supported prosthetic field.

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the bone density and the height and width around dental implants and compare it to that of the edentulous space before placing the implant.

Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Bhubaneswar. A total of 20 subjects from the CBCT database of the department with a single posterior edentulous space indicated for implant-supported dental prosthesis were selected. Approval of the Ethical Committee was taken. A pre-implant radiographic assessment was done with the help of CBCT, to evaluate the crestal height, crestal width and bone density, followed by surgical placement of the implant. After 6 months of implant placement, a post-operative radiographic assessment was done to evaluate the same parameters. 

Results: The mean difference of pre- and post-implant crestal width was 0.57 (p<0.001), crestal height was 0.5 (p<0.001) and bone density was 58.2 (p<0.001). It was observed that the mean crestal height, width and bone density was higher in the post-operative radiographic assessment compared to the pre-operative radiographic assessment and the difference was statistically significant.

Conclusion: From the given results, it can be concluded that alveolar bone width, height and bone density were significantly improved after implant placement and the osseointegration occurring after implant prosthesis greatly improves the periodontal status of the peri-implant tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Teeth Obturated with a Novel Sealer: Chitra CPC with Endosequence BC Sealer, MTA Fillapex and AH Plus

Remya Varghese, Minu Koshy, Subha Anirudhan, Jayashree Roja, Vineetha Chakravarthy Srinivas, Ambalavanan Parthasarathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21A35835

Background:  Bonding of sealer to root canal walls is likely to increase the integrity of the sealer-dentin interface during mechanical stresses, thus increasing resistance to fracture. Chitra-CPC sealer is an indigenously manufactured bioceramic material and has been used as bone graft and perforation repair material. When used as a sealer, it has good potential to reinforce the root strength in addition to excellent biocompatibility.

Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of teeth obturated with novel Calcium phosphate cement-based sealer viz. Chitra CPC with Endosequence BC sealer, MTA Fillapex and AH Plus

Methods and Material: The study was carried out in 100 single rooted extracted, decoronated mandibular premolars of length 11 mm. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20 for each group). Other than Group 1A and group1B, all other groups were restored with various endodontic sealers and obturated with Gutta Percha. In group1A, the teeth were left unprepared and unfilled (negative control), in group 1B, the teeth were left unobturated (positive control) In group 2, Epoxy resin based sealer (AHPlus ) ;In group 3, mineral trioxide aggregate–based sealer (MTAFill apex); In  group 4, Calcium phosphate cement based sealer (Chitra-CPC);in group 5,Bioceramic based sealer(Endosequence BC ) were used. After 2 weeks all specimens were tested for fracture resistance using Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min until the root fractured. The force required to fracture each specimen was recorded, and the data was analysed statistically.

Results: The fracture resistance values of Chitra –CPC and Endosequence BC sealer were significantly higher than that of positive control and comparable to negative control.

Conclusions: In contrast to MTA Fill apex and AH Plus, Chitra –CPC and Endosequence BC sealer increased the fracture resistance of teeth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Health Complications Associated with Covid-19 Vaccination

Muhammad Jamil, Soniha Aslam, Muhammad Akram Ansari, Muhammad Rafique Qambrani, Javed Ali Soomro, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Alamgir Khan, Zeliha Selamoglu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21A35837

This research aimed to investigate the health problems caused by Covid-19 vaccination. The study participants were comprised of vaccinated constables of Punjab Motorway police Lahore Pakistan. Among the participants of the study, 100 respondents were conveniently selected as sample of the study. For the collection of data, the researcher developed a self-made questionnaire according the various parameters of the study and thus personally distributed by the researcher among the respondents and collected back after getting it filled by the respondents. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, Version-26). Based on analysis the researcher arrived at conclusion that various physiological and psychological health complication were reported by respondents associated with covod-19 vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Modelling of 1H-Benzo [b] [1,5] Diazepine-2(3H)-one Derivatives and Docking Studies Against Receptor Associated Protein

Dinesh Rishipathak, Dipak Patil, Komal Ushir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21A35838

In the present investigation, some N1-benzoyl/ N1-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl amino acetyl) -7-substituted- 4-methyl-1,5-benzodiazepine-2-one were designed and docked at  active site of cavity 1# of GABA-A receptor associated protein (1KJT) to distinguish from their hypothetical binding mode. The X-ray crystal structure of mammalian GABA-A receptor associated protein (1KJT) obtained from protein data bank was used as target protein. In this investigation the comparative analysis of the docking experiments of modelled compounds with known GABA agonist, Lofendazam was carried out. The dock scores calculated for Lofendazam was -4.7373. Among the modelled compounds, following conformation were found to have lower dock scores as indicated in bracket in comparison to other confermers; N1-benzoyl-7- bromo- 4-methyl-1,5-benzodiazepine-2-one, conformer_C3  (-5.0915), N1-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl amino acetyl) -7-chloro-4-methyl-1,5-benzodiazepine-2-one, Conformer_C2 (-4.6532). These conformers have more affinity for active site of GABA-A receptor associated protein than other molecules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zhixue Mingmu Formula on Retinal Vasopermeability of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats

Xin Jia, Yue Zhang, Minglian Zhang, Zanzhang Yang, Yinglin Liu, Chengquan Li, Mingran Li

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i21A35841

Aims: To investigate the efficacy of Zhixue Mingmu Formula (ZXMM), a traditional Chinese herbal compound, for retinal vasopermeability in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) in rats.

Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed at the Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Hebei Provincial Eye Hospital within 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021. A total of 70 Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7-8 weeks old and weighing 200-240 g were selected. Animals were categorized into 2 groups:

  • A control group (n = 10): normal rats - receive vehicle.
  • A model group (n = 60): diabetic rats - receive 1% STZ in 0.1 mol/L sodium citrate buffer (45 mg/kg, i.p.).

Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg STZ. After 72 hours, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured and FBG ≥16.7 mmol/L was taken as diabetes. After 4 weeks of rearing, 10 normal rats and 50 diabetic rats which were diagnosed with retinopathy by fundus fluorescence angiography were further divided into 6 groups:

  • A normal control group (NG, n=10): normal rats - receive 0.9% normal saline.
  • A model control group (MG, n=10): DR rats - receive 0.9% normal saline.
  • A calcium dobesilate group (CD, n=10): DR rats + calcium dobesilate (135 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily.
  • A low-dose ZXMM group (LZXMM, n=10): DR rats + low-dose ZXMM (15.3 g/kg/day, p.o.) daily.
  • A moderate-dose ZXMM group (MZXMM, n=10): DR rats + moderate-dose ZXMM (30.6 g/kg/day, p.o.) daily.
  • A high-dose ZXMM group (HZXMM, n=10): DR rats + high-dose ZXMM (45.9 g/kg/day, p.o.) daily.

Drug treatments were administered daily for 4 weeks. FBG levels were monitored every 2 weeks. Retinal vasopermeability was measured using an Evans blue assay. Then, serum samples and retinal tissues were harvested to assess the levels of inflammatory factors and the activity of antioxidative enzymes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Retinal hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) protein levels were evaluated by ELISA.

Results: In the MG, FBG levels were significantly (P < 0.001) increased, and retinal vasopermeability was markedly (P < 0.001) elevated compared with those in the NG. After oral administration of ZXMM or calcium dobesilate, the elevated retinal vasopermeability was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in DR rats. Concurrently, ZXMM treatment significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the levels of the inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum and ameliorated the activity of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the retina of DR rats. ZXMM treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression in retinal tissues compared with MG treatment. Furthermore, the effects of ZXMM were dose dependent.

Conclusion: ZXMM was shown to have a protective effect against retinal vasopermeability in DR comparable to that of calcium dobesilate, and its mechanism may be attributed to inhibition of the downstream pathway of glycaemia-induced hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress of retinal tissue.