Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Type I Diabetic Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Aegle marmelos on Streptozotocin Induced Rat Model

Yousef Ahmed Saleh Haimed, Pankaj Kumar Sharma, Deepak Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17B35766

Aegle marmelos, generally acknowledged as Bael, is being ancient in Ayurveda for the therapy of a number of disorders. All the components on it tree along with stem, bark, root, leaves, fruit and seeds at all stages of maturity have medicinal virtues and have been recorded in Ethno-medicine.

Aims: The present investigation study the Anti-Type I diabetic activity of the methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos on STZ induced rat model.

Study Design: In-vivo study in rat model

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Karnataka college of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India, between Jan 2021 to Dec 2021.

Methodology: Extracted Aegle marmelos was to be evaluated the toxicity as per the OECD guidelines and biochemical, hematological and gross pathological analysis has been assessed. Type I Diabetes has been induced in Wistar rats through STZ 65mg/kg/b.w. I.P. During the experiment, Rat’s BW and FBS level were monitored. At the end of study, animals among all groups namely Group I: Normal control, Group II: STZ 65mg/kg, Group III: STZ + Insulin 4Ukg/b.w., Group IV: Aegle marmelos 250mg/kg and Group V: Aegle marmelos 500mg/kg were sacrificed and biochemical parameters like Lipid profile, C-Peptide, HbA1c, Serum insulin, pancreatic insulin, and histology of pancreas had been observed. Aegle marmelos was also screened for pro-inflammatory cytokines viz., IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA test. Furthermore, Antioxidant Enzyme like SOD, CAT, LPO and GSH were performed.

Results: The observed extract Aegle marmelos was shown safe in the toxicity data; B.W, Lipid Profile, RFT, LFT, hematological parameters were shown in the limit range and the vital organ tissue histology were not shown any anatomical and structural abnormalities. The findings of the other parameters have been shown significant impact in vivo to manage the diabetic markers like weight gain, blood glucose, lipid profile, C-Peptide, HbA1c, secretion of insulin, and pancreatic insulin. Diabetic pancreas of rats confirmed fall of beta cell density and disruption of normal architecture. But treated group were found to restore the mass of beta cells. Mediator of inflammatory cytokines like increased in STZ group and was inhibited by test chemicals. Elevated oxidative enzymes also have been seen to control upon the treatment with Aegle marmelos.

Conclusion: All this findings and phytoconstituents present within the extract should be the possible chemical substances concerned in the prevention of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Pakistani Dental Professionals Regarding Silver Diamine Fluoride

Imran Samejo, Bharat Kumar, Shahid Ali, Imdad Hussain, . Sunny, Muhammad Amin Sahito

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17B35767

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude regarding Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) among Pakistani Dental Professionals worked at various institutes of Karachi.

Methodology: This cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted among the house surgeons, general dental practitioners and specialists worked at various institutes of Karachi. Questionnaire was distributed among 375 participants through social media. Questionnaire was kept on google forum and link was sent to all participants through social media including Facebook, WhatsApp by non-probability consecutive sampling. Questionnaire was composed of two portions. Questions in first portion were related to demographic data and in second portion of Questionnaire had 13 closed ended questions regarding Knowledge and Approach towards Silver Diamine Fluoride. Statistical package for social sciences SPSS-25 was used for data entry and analysis with descriptive statistic, which used frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation.

Results: Out of the total 375 participants, 160(43%) were male and 215 (57%) female. Mean age of participants was 33 + 11.8 years. 191(51%) heard about SDF and only 108(29%) attended lectures/discussions about SDF. 189(50.40%) responded that SDF is used in enamel lesion. 251(67%) participants responded that SDF is used in both anterior and posterior teeth. Only 160(42.66%) of participants responded that SDF is used for both dentitions. 122(32.53%) were agreed that SDF is an alternative to removing dental lesion by a dental drill, while only 118 (31.47%) agreed that many patients would not accept treatment of dental caries with SDF due to the permanent black staining of the carious lesion. 240 (64%) of participants were disagree about the SDF require the use of local anesthesia and more than half of participants responded that the silver is an antimicrobial ingredient in SDF. 237(63.2%) of participants responded that SDF is indicated in Children with High caries rate and most of them responded that black staining of tooth is main disadvantage and barrier to the use of SDF. Majority of participants did not know about reapplication interval for use of SDF.

Conclusion: SDF is an appropriate alternative for restoring dental cavities in children. As it doesn’t require local anesthesia, it is the safest way to limit the progression of lesion in patient with high caries index. But there are some barriers related to the use of SDF in their regular dental practice is that, SDF causes permanent staining of tooth and also practitioners had little knowledge about their application protocols and recall or reapplication intervals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chronic Effects of Atypic Antipsychotics on Mice Isolated Vas Deferens Contractility: An In vitro Study

Mehmet Hanifi Tanyeri, Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroğlu, Pelin Tanyeri, Rümeysa Keleş Kaya, Şeyma Nur Başarir Bozkurt, Oğuz Mutlu, Füruzan Yildiz Akar, Bekir Faruk Erden, Guner Ulak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17B35768

Aims: Antipsychotic drugs are known to be commonly associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study to investigate the effects of sertindole, asenapine and ziprasidone on serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions of the isolated vas deferens in mice.

Study design: All the drugs were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a volume of 0.1 ml per 10 g body weight of mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Kocaeli University, Animal Research Center, between May 2018 and August 2019.

Methodology: The mice were randomly divided into groups (n=7) as follows: saline; sertindole 1.3 mg/kg; sertindole 2.5 mg/kg; asenapine 0.05 mg/kg; asenapine 0.075 mg/kg; ziprasidone 1 mg/kg; ziprasidone 2 mg/kg once daily for 21 days. Mice receiving only the vehicle (0.9% saline, i.p.) served as control group. After 21 days of treatment, the effects of drugs were investigated on 5-HT, NA, ATP and KCl-induced contractions of isolated vas deferens.

Results: The results showed that serotonin-induced contractions of   vas deferens were affected by the chronic treatments of sertindole, asenapine and ziprasidone, however these drugs had no significant effect on NA, ATP, and KCl-induced contractions of mice vas deferens.

Conclusion: Serotonergic receptors may contribute to changes in vas deferens contractions in mice with chronic treatment of sertindole, asenapine and ziprasidone. Thus, our results may explain one of the causes of sexual dysfunction of sertindole, asenapine and ziprasidone.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Randomized Control Trial of Clinical Success and Acceptability of the Hall Technique and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement Restorations in Sealing Carious Primary Molars

Rinky Thakkar, Ashwin Jawdekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17B35770

Background: A paradigm shift in the caries management propelled interest in techniques for sealing caries and restorations with selective caries removal. Preformed Metal Crowns (PMCs) and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) have been preferred choices of restorations for carious primary molars. This is the first study from India on the Hall Technique used to seal carious primary molars.

Objective: To compare the clinical success and acceptability of the Hall Technique and RMGIC restorations in sealing carious primary molars.

Methods: Sixty 7–8-year-old children having caries with ICDAS scores 3-5, requiring two or more restorations; a total of 140 teeth were randomized into Group A: HT (n1 = 73 teeth) or Group B: RMGIC (n2 = 67 teeth). A single calibrated operator assessed the ‘Major’ failures (abscess, secondary caries, new caries) and ‘Minor’ failures (dislodgement) over a period of 15 months. Children, parents, and operator rated the acceptability. The average time taken for each procedure was recorded.

Results: ‘Major’ failures were statistically significantly higher in the RMGIC group (p=0.008). At the 12-month follow-up, the HT outperformed RMGIC restorations. Additional failures were seen in Group B: RMGIC restorations at 15-month follow-up, whereas no failures were seen with HT. The result was statistically not significant. Children, parents, and the operator preferred the Hall Technique, which was statistically significant (p< 0.001).

Conclusion: HT is a successful and acceptable technique and superior to RMGIC restorations with partial excavation of caries in primary molars but with mild postoperative discomfort.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infestation among Children from Tertiary Care Center in Rural Sindh

Ezzat Ara Memon Yousfani, Mehwish Zafar, Faisal Irshad, Rasheed Ahmed Soomro, Sarang Tagar, Muhammad Kaleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17B35772

Aims: To determine the frequency of parasitic infestation among children in our setup.

Study Design: Observational study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the department of Pediatric Medicine and Department of Pathology, Suleman Roshan Medical College and Hospital, Tando Adam, Pakistan from 17th October 2020 to 30th May 2021.

Methods: A total of 2412 consecutive patients aged between 5 to 12 years, who attended the outpatient department for the complain of abdominal pain, diarrhea or dysentery, the clinically anemic cases, patients having history of occult blood (black stools) were included in the study. The demographic and clinical details of all the cases were collected on a structured proforma designed for the study. All the patients were investigated for stool examination. The patients already having negative stool report for parasite were excluded from the study. Microscopic examination of the fecal smear in normal saline was performed for the detection of any helminth or protozoal infection. The data collected was statistically analyzed and the results were tabulated.

Results: 1316 (54.6%) samples were found positive for helminth or protozoal infection, and 1490 parasites were detected from a total of 2412 stool specimens collected and analyzed. Majority of the children were female 1344 (55.7%). The highest parasitosis (70.3%) was more common among 9-10 years age group. Abdominal pain was the main presenting complaint. The Entamoeba histolytica was most common protozoa in both male and female (24.6%), while helminthic infection like Ascaris lumbricoides was most common parasite detected in 47.2% of samples but more prevalent in male cases.

Conclusion: The present study reveals a high frequency of parasitosis in our setup. Entamoeba histolytica was the commonest protozoa and Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequent helminthic infection, abdominal pain being the main presenting complaint.

Open Access Review Article

A Focus on Fabrication, Characterization, Stability, Skin Targeting, Patent, Safety and Toxicity of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier

Laxmidhar Sahoo, Chandra Sekhar Patro, Goutam Kumar Jena, Ch. Niranjan Patro, Sukanta Satapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17B35771

Background: The advanced development of lipid nanocarrier contributes a lot to the domain of therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. However the parameter such as drug loading, drug release, stability, and targeting influence much more towards the limitation of many lipid nanocarriers. The Nanostructured lipid carrier, the second generation of lipid carrier has more promising advantages over others and have tremendous targeting ability to skin for drug administration.

Objective: The present review paper focus to understand the different fabrication technique, impact of lipid and surfactant on formulation effectiveness, characterization of formulation, and Crystalinity concept of lipid which have an impact on stability & drug loading. Focus on a parameter such as Transepidermal water loss , skin occlusion, and hydration which determine the ability of the carrier to target the skin. Hence the effectiveness of the drug improved. This review also focused on patents based on Nanostructured lipid carriers.

Method of preparation: many methods have been adopted to prepare Nanostructured lipid carriers and among all High-pressure homogenization method is considered as best one.

Conclusion: Because of numerous advantages of this carrier system such as biocompatibility of lipid, high drug encapsulation, stability over others, it is considered as a major focused area for researchers. The new domain of Nanostructured lipid carrier is transdermal drug administration by targeting the skin; hence more research is focused on topical preparation. However, toxicity must have to be studied in humans. So by considering all factors one can rename it as “smart nano lipid carrier".