Open Access Case Study

Pan Facial Trauma Fracture Management: Case Report & Literature Review

Manjunath Vijapur, Nidhi Jenson Ukken, Vasanth Kattimani, Prasanna Kumar D., Aysha Kaleem Pasha, . Anuradha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16B35735

Pan facial fractures involve the mandible, maxilla, and zygomatic complex at the same time, and are frequently associated with NOE and frontal bone fractures. Reconstruction of multiple facial fractures including the top and lower face should be handled as a jigsaw. To accomplish this, two common management sequences for Pan facial fractures have been proposed: "Bottom up and inside out" and "Top down and outside in." There are more sequences, but these two major ways are the most common. The proximity of the maxillofacial region to important features or senses such as vision (diplopia), olfaction, respiration (airway management), chewing or mastication (occlusion), deglutition, and aesthetics makes the scenario a little more complex for the surgeon operating in this region than in any other part of the body.

It's difficult to stick to a tried-and-true procedure for treating pan face fractures. Despite rigorous therapy, most patients with pan facial trauma may have some residual deformity, which may necessitate more surgery in the future. The care and easy procedures utilized to decrease and fix a case of pan facial trauma in a 26-year-old are described in this article.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-silico Screening and Identification of Novel Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitor from Leishmania

Misbahuddin M. Rafeeq, Ziaullah M. Sain, Khwaja Mohd Amir, Najat Binothman, Majidah Aljadani, Ahmad Alzamami, Norah A. Alturki, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Rashed Ahmed Alniwaider, Ahmed Hamdan Aloufi, Alaa Hamed Habib

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16B35736

The negative effects of leishmanicidal medications are numerous, and drug resistance to all of them has been observed. As a result, new medication development and the identification of novel therapeutic targets are critical. Leishmania major trypanothione reductase (Lm-TR), a NADPH-dependent flavoprotein oxidoreductase critical for thiol metabolism, is required for parasite viability.  Since it lowers trypanothione, a chemical required by Leishmania's tryparedoxin/tryparedoxin peroxidase system to neutralise hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by host macrophages during infection, this enzyme is essential for parasite survival in the host.

Because it is not found in the mammalian host, this enzyme is a promising target for novel anti-leishmania medicines. A three-dimensional model of Lm-TR was created using I-TASSER server. Virtual screening of about 5000 sigma aldrich compounds, acquired from the ZINC database, was carried out using Autodock vina tool. Top ten compounds were tabulated based on binding affinity. 

The molecules with the ids ZINC04245710 and ZINC03869768 had the highest binding affinities of -11.4 and -11.2 kcal/mol, respectively. These compounds had the maximum binding affinity and the appropriate amount of hydrogen bonds. These molecules may be able to efficiently block the activity of the target enzyme (Lm-TR) and so serve as novel agents to combat cutaneous leishmaniasis. In search for new anti-Leishmania medications that are more effective and less cytotoxic, these molecules may provide a good starting point for a hit-to-lead procedure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evidence of Risk Factors Associated with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in Newly Diagnosed Adult Hypertensive Patients in NAUTH Nnewi, Nigeria

Nkiruka R. Ukibe, Anya O. Kalu, Isaac P. Emeje, Solomon N. Ukibe, Gloria E. Ukibe, Chigozie C. Obiekezie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16B35745

Aims & objectives: Due to other chronic diseases that are associated with hypertension and kidney disease, little or no attention has been paid to the existence of polycystic kidney disease in Nigeria. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of some risk factors of ADPKD among hypertensive adult patients in NAUTH, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria

Study design: A cross-sectional and prospective study

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Medical out-patient, cardiology and nephrology units of NAUTH Nnewi between February and June, 2019.

Methodology: A total of 160(80 newly diagnosed hypertensive and 80 normotensive subjects) aged between 25-75 years were randomly selected. Estimation of serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, total calcium, eGFR and total protein, BMI and waist-hip ratio of the subjects were taken were done using standard laboratory methods.

Results: 12.5% of the hypertensive subjects have undergone dialysis, 7.5% had kidney transplant, 13.8% had hematuria, 20% had proteinuria, 27.5% had recurrent kidney infection, 15% had kidney stone, 43.8% experienced abdominal/side pain, 20% have had abdominal hernias and 46.3% had elevated urea/creatinine. Mean values of age, BMI and WHR were significantly higher in hypertensive than control subjects (p =.05). Similarly, serum creatinine, urea, sodium and chloride were significantly higher with lower eGFR in hypertensive when compared with control group (p =.05). eGFR in female was significantly lower compared with male hypertensive (p = .05). The mean SBP and DBP were significantly higher in hypertensive compared with control group (p = .05).

Conclusion: 30% of the hypertensive subjects had multiple signs and symptoms of ADPKD, suggesting evidence of high prevalence of ADPKD in the hypertensive patients. Routine screening of family members with hypertension and symptomatic cases of hypertension using ultrasound imaging is strongly recommended for confirmation of presence PKD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Systemic Doxycycline as An Adjunct to Initial Periodontal Therapy in Mild to Moderate Generalized Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Hakam Rabi, Mohammad Assaf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16B35748

Background: Antibiotics like doxycycline can show an anti-bacterial effect which can reduce the bacterial load and promote healing in patients with chronic periodontitis.

Aim: To evaluate the use of doxycycline as an adjunct to initial periodontal therapy in mild to moderate periodontitis.

Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled clinical trial was done on 24 patients. Plaque index score, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss was evaluated at six-week and twelve-week intervals after treatment with systemic doxycycline along with deep scaling and placebo medication with deep scaling. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software version 22. T-test was used to compare results between the two groups.

Results: Independent T-test shows statistically significant reduction in plaque index score, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth at six-week interval in doxycycline group as compared to the control group with deep scaling alone. There was a statistically significant gain in the attachment level at six-week interval in doxycycline group than initial periodontal therapy alone. This result was not statistically significant at the twelve-week interval. 

Conclusion: The study shows doxycycline as a good adjunct to initial periodontal therapy; however, more studies are required to obtain strong evidence.

Open Access Review Article

Insight on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an Adjunctive Treatmentin Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review

Hadaya M. Eladl, Nesma M. Allam, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Marwa M. Eid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16B35743

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a source of major concern for both patients and health care systems. DFU is the most expensive and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. That can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if necessary care is not provided. On the other hand, once DFU has developed, there is an increased risk of ulcer progression that may ultimately lead to amputation. Overall, the rate of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus is 15 times higher than patients without diabetes. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can be defined as a mode of medical treatment in which the patient is entirely enclosed in a pressure chamber and breathes 100% oxygen at a pressure greater than 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA). HBOT can be used as an adjunct to standard wound care in the treatment of diabetic patients with foot ulcers. HBOT has been demonstrated to have an antimicrobial effect and to increase oxygenation of hypoxic wound tissues. This enhances neutrophil killing ability, stimulates angiogenesis, and enhances fibroblast activity, collagen synthesis and alter vascular activity. Thus, theoretically, HBOT could improve the healing of ischemic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. This review focuses on providing an up-to-date summary of the currently available evidence-based data on HBOT in DFU, as well as elaborating its use in the management of diabetic injuries both ischemic and non-ischemic ulcers.

Open Access Review Article

A Simplified Review on Microsphere and Their Different Applications

Shital Bidkar, Sana Maniyar, Jayant Bidkar, Shubrajit Mantry, Ganesh Dama

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16B35744

Microspheres are small free-flowing particles with 1-1000um diameter and can be used to overcome the problems of conventional drug delivery. By altering the materials, methods, and polymers the therapeutic efficacy of microspheres containing drug content can be altered. We have discussed about microspheres, their various types, techniques used to manufacture microspheres, also about the advantages and different application of microsphere. Microspheres are used in novel drug delivery system. The microsphere will be assessed using a variety of procedures to determine its quality. Microspheres will play an important role in the delivery of novel medication in the future. Microspheres use in treatment of different disease conditions.