Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Binaural Beats on Preoperative Anxiety among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

Muhammad Zaman, . Raja, Saeeda Sania, Abdul Rehman, Aftab Ghouri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15B35712

Background: Every surgery is associated with different levels of risks and complications. Cardiac surgeries would definitely cause moderate to severe anxiety because cardiac surgeries are riskier than other invasive procedures.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of binaural beats on pre-operative anxiety among patients undergoing for CABG surgery.

Methodology: This pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tabba Heart Institute. In this study, total 56 patients were included who were undergoing for CABG surgery. The patients were divided into two groups; interventional group and control group. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were measured before intervention and 30 minutes after the intervention. For the data collection, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire was used to measure the pre-operative anxiety level among CABG patients.

Results: Both groups; binaural beats and counseling technique groups comprised 28 patients. Patients in binaural beats group and counseling technique showed significant reduction of anxiety scores after the intervention. Among two groups, a significant difference was seen in mean anxiety scores, with mean score of 52.9±5.5 in control and 48.2±6.7 in intervention group and it was statistically significant (p-value=0.006). A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate recorded only in the binaural beats group, whereas, no significant difference of vital signs found in counseling technique group.

Conclusion: Both, BB and counseling technique proved as factor to decrease anxiety level. Physiologic indicators of anxiety like systolic blood pressure and heart rate were also significantly lower in the binaural beats group over counseling technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Chalcone Hydrazide Derivatives

Amit N. Panaskar, Ashish Jain, Pradeep Kumar Mohanty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15B35716

Aim: Chalcones are part of the selected group of chemical compounds related with diverse pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, convulsion, anxiety, anti-inflammatory, andanalgesic. The aim of this study was to synthesize chalcones hydrazide derivatives and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in the model of carrageenan induced edema in rats.

Methods: The chalcone hydrazide derivatives were prepared by treating Isonicotinyl and Nicotinyl hydrazide with respective parent chalconeand environmentally friendly solvents with 78–85% yields in approximately 6 hrs. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. The structures of synthesised derivatives were evaluated on biological activity at dose of 40 mg/kg and they showed anti-inflammatory protective effect by oral administration, this effect was time dependent.

Results: All the derivatives were given satisfactory reaction yields that representing the efficiency of the employed synthetic route. In carrageenan-induced paw edema model, CL-2derivative showed most significant percentage of inhibition (61.97%) as compared to reference standard Indomethacin.

Conclusion: Compound CL-2 was showed significant anti-inflammatory activity due to presence of electron donating groups like –CH3 on ring A and electron withdrawing group like NO2 on ring B at 4th position in isonicotinyl hydrazide derivative. All synthetic chalcone hydrazide derivatives may be considered as safer drugs for treating inflammatory conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Opioid Free Anesthesia and Conventional Opioid Based Anesthesia for Patients Undergoing Laproscopic Surgeries under General Anesthesia

Sornam Annamalai, Lakshmi Ramakrishnan, Dhivya Ravikumar, Karthik Krishna Ramakrishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15B35717

Postoperative pain management plays a vital role in the recovery after surgery. All these days opioids were used to accomplish this, but their use can be associated with adverse effects which can prolong the hospital stay. In the present era of opioid epidemic, it is our responsibility to look for other alternatives, other drugs and modalities which can be safely be given to opioid naive surgical patients. The concept of multi-modal analgesia came as a paradigm shift lately by employing loco regional analgesia as well as drugs acting on different receptors of nociception. One of the pharmaceutical agents is Lignocaine which when given intravenously as continuous infusion produced analgesia in concentrations similar to epidural route. We conducted a study on continuous intra operative infusion of lignocaine in 1mg/kg/hr after a bolus dose. Lignocaine produced better hemodynamic stability, reduced consumption of volatile anaesthetics, less postoperative nausea vomiting, sedation and facilitated early ambulation in patients after laparoscopic surgeries. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Preformulation Study of Glimepiride: An Insight for Formulation and Development of Parenteral Formulation

Chirag Patel, Disha Suthar, Hetal Patel, Vinit Movaliya, Punit Parejiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15B35718

Aim: The objective of preformulation study is to develop the elegant, stable, effective and safe dosage form by establishing kinetic profile, compatibility with other formulation excipients and physico-chemical parameters of new drug substance. This could provide important information for formulation design or support the need for molecular modification. So, in the present study preformulation studies were performed on Glimepiride (GMP) to assess its suitability for parenteral formulation. Glimepiride is the first IIIrd generation sulphonyl urea used to treat type –II diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The authenticity of GMP was established by DSC and FTIR spectra. A UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC method were employed for determination of GMP in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).

Results: The UV method was linear in the range of 3-10 μg/ml. The low % CV values of intra-day and inter-day variations revealed that the proposed method is robust. The retention time of GMP in HPLC method was found to be 1.9 min. The method was proven robust by obtaining very high regression coefficient value (0.999).

Conclusions: The results of the physicochemical study of drug revealed suitability of GMP for parenteral route. Moreover, the drug was found stable in both solid as well as liquid state at different conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antioxidant and DPP-IV Enzyme Assay of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Enicostemma littorale

V. Muralidharan, Padmaja Vaddepalli, Shweta Saboo, Beebireddy Vidhya, Aenugu Jyothi, Nitin Gawai, Teja Kumar Reddy Konatham, M. Akiful Haque

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15B35726

Background: Pharmacological treatments for diabetes are based on increasing insulin availability and improving insulin sensitivity. Today, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) -based therapies aim to control glucose through DPP-4 inhibitors. DPP-4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the prolyl oligopeptidase family, with the specificity of eliminating the X-Pro or X-Ala dipeptides from the N-terminal end of the polypeptides. The effect of GLP-1 in stimulating the release of glucose-dependent insulin from pancreatic islets inhibits inappropriate glucagon release after meals and slow gastric emptying promotes intestinal permeability.

Study Design: The current study investigated the inhibitory activity of DPP-4 along with the antioxidant activity of Enicostemma littorale extract.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted at Anurag University, Hyderabad between June-2021 to Sept-2021.

Methodology: The extracts tested for a range of activities such as hydroxyl radical scavenging activity test, In-vitro DPP-IV enzyme test activity test, DPPH free radical scavenging.

Results: The extract shows dose-dependent DPPH and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. In in-vitro DPP-IV enzyme assay activity, Enicostemma littorale ethyl acetate extract showed greater inhibitory activity of DPP-IV compared to vildagliptin with IC50 values ​​of 165.64μg/ml, respectively. Vildagliptin, based on the reference standard for DPP-IV inhibitor activity, has an IC50 value of 57.44 μg/ml. According to the in-vitro analysis, the Enicostemma littorale extract has a strong inhibitory activity of DPP-IV.

Conclusion: We concluded that the Enicostemma littorale will be a better source for further development as new antidiabetic drugs. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report and study on the bark part of this species.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Moderate Risk Suseptibilty Genes in Development of Breast Cancer

Kouser Abbas, Amtul Sami, Ufaque batool, Ubedullah Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15B35696

Breast cancer is the most common cause of mortality in females globally and affects the lives of millions of women. It is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, but the dynamics have been changed because of advanced screening and treatment protocols [1]. In the United States, breast cancer has been ranked second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, with the most common being lung cancer [2]. To improve cancer screening, a personalized approach has been discussed, but its implication over large populations can be difficult and require expertise. Early detection leads to a good prognosis whereas the late diagnosis of breast cancer is a challenge for both patient and doctor [3]. Breast cancer became the most prevalently diagnosed cancer worldwide as of 2021 accounting for 12% of new annual cases worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. In2020, there were 2.3 million women diagnosed with breast cancer and 685 000 deaths globally. Multigene panel testing has identified various genes predisposed to breast cancer development. These genes have different penetrance abilities. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the best known high penetrance gene of hereditary breast cancer. Their discovery has revolutionized the effect in cancer assessment. Tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 show distinctive clinicopathological characteristics as compared with other genes causing tumors. Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2, advances in molecular technique have led to the identification of other genes associated with breast cancer. Some other the high penetrance genes are TP53, PTEN, STK11, and CDH1.  Besides high pentrance gene, moderate to low penetrance genes are also recognized as a cancer predisposing genes: PALB, BRIP1, ATM, CHEK2, BARD1, NBN, NF1, RAD51C, RAD51D. Along with risk of breast cancer development these genes also predispose to other malignancies, as well as some genetic disorders.