Open Access Minireview Article

The Impact of COVID-19 on Pregnancy: A Mini-review

Wael A. Alsaleh, Nour I. Alsultan, Rania Daef

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15A35690

Background: Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has become a research priority since first reported case in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Pregnant women and fetuses represent a vulnerable group for which the disease may have effects not applicable to the general population. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the association between COVID-19 and pregnancy in terms of the clinical manifestations, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the possibility of vertical transmission of the disease.

Methodology: Articles addressing the impact of COVID-19 during the perinatal period were obtained mainly from PubMed database. Most of the studies of a systematic review or meta-analysis used in the current study were published in the current year 2021.

Results: The present study discussed different issues. First, clinical manifestations were not different from the general population with fever and cough being the most common symptoms; while the course of the disease was milder in general compared to general population. Regarding vertical transmission, the current literature did not provide evidence supporting the transmission of SARS-Cov-2 to the fetus; although, there were few cases reported which do not exceed 4%.

Conclusion: In general, the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 do not greatly differ from the normal population. Cesarean section and premature birth were reported with no evidence of the presence of the novel coronavirus in the amniotic fluid nor the breast milk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Job-Related Injuries among Construction Workers in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia

Abdulrahman Al Naeem, Mary Kay O’Rourke, Phillip Harber, Kyle Humphrey, Hassan Abugad, Sultan T. Al Otaibi, Muna Faisal Alnaim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15A35687

The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of work-related Musculoskeletal Injuries among construction workers, to evaluate injury-related sick leave, and identify factors contributing to injury.

the study was conducted and distributed to Saudi construction companies in three cities in the eastern region and 201 workers were approached and 149 were enrolled in the study. Jobs were categorized based on level of impact and jobs with similar levels were grouped together. Multiple Regression was used to evaluate stress categories and a cluster analysis was run on scaled and normalized types of stress and pain to identify factors closely associated with sick days taken. The results showed a response rate of 74.1%. A univariate analysis was used, and it demonstrated a 75.2% pain in upper and lower extremities, 61.7% pain was reported in upper extremities (Shoulder and Neck > Wrists and Hands > Elbow) and 12.8% pain reported in lower extremities (Lower back > Hips > Knees). In conclusion, the prevalence of work-related MSI in this large construction company was 75.2%. stratified multiple regression suggests job categories are good predictors of physical stress exposure and sick leave taken, also, the amount of force exerted, and vibration experienced by workers is closely linked to sick leave taken as well. Medium and high pain levels were linked to keyboard work, pushing / pulling, lifting and use of vibrating tools these workers would benefit from training emphasizing ergonomics and an explanation of proper techniques to handle tools. Lastly, applying new engineering controls would be helpful in the prevention of injuries that can minimize sick leave.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence and Peak Age of Anxiety Disorders at a General Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

Ammar A. Albokhari, Rajab Bresaly, Amani Hussain, Fatma A. Albarqi, Ahmad Almaghrabi, Sumayah I. Fallata, Abdulmalik H. Alsabban, Abdulrhman T. Alsawas, Ghassan K. Al Harazi, Deyaa Mukhtar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15A35689

Introduction: The most prevalent mental disorders which affect up to 33.7% of the population include generalized anxiety disorder, anxiety mixed with depression, panic attack, panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, and agoraphobia, all of which fall under the umbrella of anxiety disorder. Its prevalence has increased due to social, environmental, and political changes, and such patients are mostly treated as outpatients. Its incidence rate from 1990 to 2019 slightly increased among the people aged 20–39 and over 75 years, but its prevalence rate over the past 60 years has gradually decreased.

Methods: This single-center cross-sectional study initially enrolled 2288 patients with anxiety disorders from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2020, at Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Data was extracted from the hospital’s health information system.

Results: Anxiety disorders developed at an average age of 41.6 years, peak age of 39.5 years, and most frequent age of 38 years, with significant changes in the median age of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Conclusion: Anxiety disorders are the second most dysfunctional mental disorder in Saudi Arabia, with incident rate of approximately 135 cases per year with an average onset at around 41 years old at our institution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Bio Feedback Training with Strengthening Exercises vs Strengthening Exercises in Osteoarthritis Knee Cases

Pritika Rana, P. Senthil, T. Alagappan, Shenbaga Sundaram Subramanian, N. Shazia Neelam, L. Haribabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15A35691

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is a non-inflammatory degenerative disorder of joints causing disability in millions of people all over the world. WHO estimates that 10% of world’s population over 60 years of age suffers from osteoarthritis and 80% of people with osteoarthritis have limitation of movement and 25% are unable to do daily activities. Thus, making it a major cause of impairment & disability in elderly and economic burden in community.

The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of biofeedback training along with strengthening exercises vs strengthening exercises in knee osteoarthritis subjects to reduce the symptoms of pain, loss of ROM and functional activity.

Methods: 50 subjects diagnosed of grade-I to early grade-II osteoarthritis recruited for the studyafter obtaining an Informed consent. Each group will comprise of 25 subjects with age group ranging 40-70 years. Group A will be given biofeedback training along with the strengthening exercises of knee, Group B will be given strengthening exercises exclusively. Both the groups will undergo training for 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Each session will be of 20-30 minutes.

Results: Parameters include WOMAC score and joint ROM, both pre-test and post-test measures will be analyzed statistically using t-test to check the effectiveness of each technique. P-value WOMAC Score showed p>0.0001 and shows significance in the biofeedback training subjects.

Conclusion: In this study bio feedback training with the strengthening exercises shows significant improvement in quadriceps muscle strength, increase Range of Motion in knee joint and reduction in other symptoms of OA knee.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of In vitro Antiacne Activity of Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss.

T. V. Mahalakshmi, E. Sujatha, S. Padmini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15A35694

Acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes, subsequently aggravated by Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss. It is a common weed found in Asia and tropical Africa. The current investigation is aimed to explore its antiacne property targeting the aforementioned gram-positive strains. Disc diffusion method was adopted to screen the antibacterial property of the ethanol extract at various concentrations (12.5, 25, 50& 100mg/ml) compared with Ciprofloxacin using Mueller Hinton Agar medium. The diameter of the clear zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were calculated. From the results, it is apparent that the zone of inhibition was high for P. acnes (19mm), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (17mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (12mm), and was more sensitive to Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss. ethanol extract at 100mg/ml concentration. Similarly, from the MIC values, it is found that the plant extract completely halted the growth of Propionibacterium acnes more efficiently at 0.32mg/ml, Staphylococcus aureus at 0.25mg/ml, and 0.28mg/ml for Staphylococcus epidermidis. Either alone or in combination, the phytochemicals may be responsible for the observed scavenging property.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Statin Drugs on New Onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Post Menopausal Women

Muhammad Jamil Laghari, Fazeela Rizwan Memon, Sadat Memon, Rizwan Ahmed Memon, Abdul Sattar, Muhammad Ishaque Bhatti, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i15A35695

Background: Statin drugs are using all over the world for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. There is hypothesis that post menopausal women who used statin drugs long time can develop the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus because statin drugs inhibit the signal transduction of insulin by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation resulting in decrease secretion of insulin leads to hyperglycemia. The aim of this study to estimate the effects of statin drugs on blood glucose level and HbA!c% in post menopausal women.

Methodology: This case comparative study was done at LUMHS Jamshoro. The sampling was done by Non Probability method. Total number of150 subjects were divided in 2 group’s i.e group A (Control group) & group B (Case study group). The fasting glucose level was measured by glucose oxidase method while HbA1c% & serum cholesterol levels were determined by Kit method by using auto analyzer. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS 21 by applying ANOVA test for multiple variants. 

Results: The mean with S.D fasting blood glucose levels in control group was 78± 9.05   mg/dl while in case study group it was 134 ± 12.15mg/dl (p <0.05), HbA1c% levels in control group was 5.3 ± 1.1% while in case study group it was 7.4 ± 1.3% (p<0.05) and serum cholesterol in control group was 157± 9.75 mg/dl while in case study group it was 195 ± 8.78 mg/dl (p<0.05) was significantly (P<0.05). The glycemic index & fasting blood glucose levels significantly observed elevated in post menopausal women who were use statin drugs since last three years

Conclusion: This study concluded that there was significant relation of statin drugs on increasing of blood glucose levels so they can induce the onset of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.