Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Intracanal Cryotherapy on Surface Temperature Change in the Root Apex with Different Thickness; an Ex Vivo Study

Siddiqua Fatima, Asmat Jameel, Rizwan Jouhar, Muhammad Saqib, Jamshed Ahmed, Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i14A35597

Aims: To evaluate the effect of intracanal cryotherapy on surface temperature change in the root apex with different thickness.

Study Design: Comparative Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Operative Dentistry Department: Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan: July 2020 till June 2021.

Materials & Methods: Sixty extracted single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two groups: 30 each with one group consisting of teeth with ≤3 mm root thickness and another group consisting of teeth with thickness >3mm. Both groups were equally subdivided into Group A and Group B. After endodontic preparation of teeth, Group A underwent room temperature saline irrigation and Group B cold temperature saline (2.5°C) irrigation. A digital thermometer was used to measure the external root surface temperature by placing the thermocouple at 2 mm from the apex of the root’s buccal surface.

Results: Initial and final temperatures were compared using paired t-test. Independent t-test was applied to compare the final temperature between ≤3mm and >3mm thickness groups. P-value less than or equal to 5% level of significance was defined as statistically significant. In group A, An average temperature decrease of 4.4 ± 0.5°C was observed in the final temperature when thickness was ≤3mm (p=0.040) while a reduction of 2.6 ± 0.5°C was seen in the final temperature when thickness was >3mm (p=0.008). When thickness was ≤3 mm, final temperature among group A and Group B was significantly different with higher mean final temperature in Group A (p<0.001). At thickness >3mm, final temperature between Group A and Group B was different with significantly lower final temperature in Group B than Group A(p<0.001).

Conclusion: The external root surface temperature reduction was found to be inversely related to the external root thickness. Thin roots showed greater temperature reduction compared to thick roots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Morphology and Prevalence of Palatogingival Grooves on Affected Maxillary Anterior Teeth using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Ramhari Sathawane, Vidyarjan Sukhadeve, Romita Gaikwad, Dhiran Talatule, Pranada Deshmukh, Charwak Tayade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i14A35599

Background: Palatogingival groove (PG), a developmental anomaly, originates in cingulum and extends to varying distances apically. It is an ideal pathway for oral bacteria to invade periodontal tissues causing periodontal damage, pulp necrosis, apical periodontitis and endo-periodontal deformity which is not easily perceived until sinus tract infection appears in mouth. It presents a challenge to most clinicians as it requires an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment planning.

Aim and Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of palatogingival grooves (PGs) in maxillary anterior teeth on CBCT.

Materials and Methods: CBCT examinations of 707 teeth in 120 patients (Female-41, Male-79) were evaluated retrospectively. Maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canine were investigated for the presence or absence of PGs and PG type using the Gu classification (type I, II, or III). 3D CBCT images were used for evaluation of PGs. Radiographic features of PGs were noted and differences were evaluated and results were obtained. Differences was considered significant for p ≤ 0.05.

Results: The PGs were observed in 61 teeth. Type 1 PG is found more prevalent in males (30.37%) than in females (12.19%) followed by type 2(male-12.65%, females-4.87%) and type 3 (male-3.75%). Higher prevalence for Type 1 PG was seen in the lateral incisor followed by central incisor and canine and had a male predominance. Type 2 PG showed equal prevalence for lateral & central incisor and male predominance. Type 3 PG showed higher prevalence for lateral incisors and male predominance.

Conclusion: Prevalence of PGs was found to be 8.62%. PG facilitate bacterial colonization leading to periodontitis, pulp necrosis and endo-periodontal lesion in an apparently normal tooth which pose challenges in its diagnosis and management for survival of tooth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Cholelithiasis: Cohort from Southeast Asian Patients

Abdul Hafeez Soomro, Jawaid Iqbal, Rehmatullah Bhatti, Falak Naz, Muhammad Arsalan, Muhammad Sadik Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i14A35647

Introduction: With increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome, sedentary lifestyle, and diabetes mellitus the burden of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also increasing along with its complications including gallstone disease. That is why, this study aims to determine the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with the prevalence of gallstone disease and also, risk factors associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic cholelithiasis.

Methods: A prospective study design was performed and during the data collection phase we have enrolled a total of 218 patients who were diagnosed as a case of NAFLD from Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad between the periods of 19 months from March 2019 to October 2020. Diagnosis of NAFLD was made using liver biopsy and cholelithiasis with ultrasound abdomen. Both males and females with a primary diagnosis of NAFLD were included in this study. Patients were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic gallstone disease and were further assessed for underlying risk factor associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic gallstone disease. Statistical package for the social sciences version 21 (SPSS) used for the entry of data and final analysis and a p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant.

Results: The overall prevalence of gallstone disease in patients with NAFLD was 12.84% (n = 28) among them 19 (67.85%) patients were having symptomatic gallstone disease while 9 patients had asymptomatic gallstones disease (32.14%). Patients having mean age 49.01 years, uncontrolled blood sugar level (209.24 mg/dl), mean alkaline phosphatase 106.22 IU/L, female gender, and having diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with symptomatic gallstones disease (p value <0.05).

Conclusion: In our study, the cohorts have shown bidirectional association between gallstone disease and NAFLD. Also prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease is quite high and it was strongly associated with increasing age, female gender, raised blood glucose levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Modified Triangular Flap and Envelop Flap Techniques for Surgical Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar

Bharti Kumari, Suneel Kumar Punjabi, . Lavina, Naeem Mustafa, Reham Iqbal, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i14A35649

Objective: To compare postoperative outcomes in surgical extraction of mandibular third molar with envelop flap versus modified triangular flap.

Setting & Duration: Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Unit at Faculty of Dentistry, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro. Study period was from January 2021 to December 2021.

Subject and Methods: A set of 60 individuals were sequentially assigned 30 to the Group A envelop flap and 30 to the Group B modified triangular flap for surgical removal of the mandibular third molar tooth. The demographic and clinical parameters was identified and recorded in proforma. The discomfort, swelling, and restricted mouth opening linked with an impacted mandibular third tooth are all assessed prior to surgery. The flap pattern employed for the extraction of the impacted lower third molar tooth, pain, and mouth opening was all reported on the proforma at the end of the procedure. On the seventh postoperative day, each patient was evaluated again.

Results: - The average age of patients in group A was 29.77±7.17 years and 28.20±6.28 years in group B. Mean pain score was significantly low in group A as compare to group B [0.87±0.86 vs. 2.93±0.87 p=0.0005]. Mean mouth opening was significantly high in group A than group B [12.86±3.59 vs. 6.12±1.67; p=0.0005].

Conclusion: In comparison to the envelope flap, the modified triangular flap was more effective when considering the postoperative periodontal state of the surrounding third molar and the dehiscence after wound recovery.

Open Access Review Article

Genomics of Human Papillomavirus-induced Cervical Cancer

Shruti Umarvaish, Somendra Kumar, Anil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i14A35598

Human papillomavirus (HPV) induced cervical cancer is a serious health issue among most women from the least developed countries of the world due to scarcity of resources. HPVs have evolved a masterly infectious cycle that grabs the advantage of the self-renewal property of stratified cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Firstly, the viral genome replicates episomally at a low copy number in the epithelial basal layers cells, with minimum viral transcription and translation. After that, when the infected cells are transmitted through the differentiation process maximum viral DNA synthesis and gene expression occur. The two major oncoproteins - E6 and E7, are responsible for inactivating the important tumor suppressor proteins, retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53. Due to the inactivation of these proteins, disruption occurs in the DNA replication, DNA repair mechanisms, oxidative induced damage (8-oxoguanine), aneuploidy, and apoptosis, leading to tumorigenesis. Hence, manipulation of E6 and E7 genes shows a successful result in the treatment of cervical cancer. The diagnosis tests include liquid-based preparations to improve the standard of the Pap smear; computer-based screening methods to improve Pap smear interpretation; and HPV testing methods that may be beneficial in triaging patients with untypical squamous cells of unknown significance or low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). The continued studies of the molecular biology of HPVs are necessary to develop advanced screening techniques for testing and prophylactic vaccines for the elimination of HPV infection, also better therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of various HPVs infections.

Open Access Review Article

Cisplatin and Nano-particle Formulations of Cisplatin for Cancer Therapy: A Review

Popsy Raj, Bharat Lal, Manoj Gadewar, Anita Singh, G. K. Prashanth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i14A35636

Cisplatin (cis-(diammine)dichloridoplatinum(II)) is the first platinum-based compound approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (U.S.). This is a first-line chemotherapeutic treatment used alone or combined with other anticancer drugs to treat a broad spectrum of malignancies, with cisplatin-based nano-formulations currently in clinical studies. Cisplatin has several drawbacks, including low aqueous solubility, drug resistance, and toxicity, all of which can be addressed by encapsulating the drug in Nemours nanocarriers. The various nano-delivery technologies developed for Cisplatin are covered in vast literature from different electronic databases. This review focuses on comparative findings over the recent advancements, developments, innovations, and updated literature for various CDDP nano-carrier systems.